Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Baudhayana Srauta Sutra & The Indo Aryan Migration (800 BC)

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"Is There Vedic Evidence for the migration of Indo-Aryan speakers from Afghanistan into India?....A recent translation of this legend has given rise to a heated controversy. As some recent Indian right wing politicians and writers deny any immigration into the Panjab from Central Asia of Vedic peoples into South Asia; they also argue against Vedic passages that point to immigration."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudhayana_Shrauta_Sutra#cite_note-14

The Indo Aryan Migration...."there is the following direct statement contained in....the Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra.... "Ayu went eastwards. His (people) are the Kuru Panchala and the Kasi-Videha. This is the Ayava (migration). (His other people) stayed at home. His people are the Gandhari, Parsu and Aratta. This is the Amavasava (group)" (M. Witzel. The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools:)......

Click on the map to enlarge.....http://tattvaanveshanam.wordpress.com

"Baudhāyana, (c. 800 BC) was the author of the Baudhayana sūtras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, Vedic sacrifices, etc. He belongs to the Yajurveda school, and is older than the other sūtra author Āpastambha.....

"The Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra is a Late Vedic text dealing with the solemn rituals of the Taittiriya school of the Black Yajurveda that was composed in eastern Uttar Pradesh during the late Brahmana period....is most important in that it clearly shows the first steps taken by late Vedic ritualists towards the Sutra style, with ever increasing degree of conciseness, culminating in the minimal style of the Katyayana Srautasutra and the short formulas of Pāṇini."....Fushimi, Makoto. Baudhayana Srautasutra: Development of the Ritual Text in Ancient India. PhD thesis, Harvard University 2007

"According to Vadhula Anvakhyana 1.1.1, yajna rituals were not performed properly before the attainment of the Gandharva fire and the birth of Ayu who ensures the continuation of the human lineage that continues down to the Kuru kings, and beyond.....

"... yajña (Sanskrit: यज्ञ; IAST: yajña, also transliterated yagya or yadnya) or yagam (Tamil: யாகம்), is a ritual of offerings accompanied by chanting of Vedic mantras (also "worship, prayer, praise, offering and oblation, sacrifice" according to Monier-Williams) derived from the practice in Vedic times. Yajna is an ancient ritual of offering and sublimating the havana sámagri (herbal preparations) in the fire. The sublime meaning of the word yajna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a three-fold meaning of worship of deities (devapujana), unity (saògatikaraña) and charity (dána). An essential element is the ritual fire – the divine Agni – into which oblations are poured, as everything that is offered into the fire is believed to reach God. The term yajna is linguistically (but not functionally) cognate with Zoroastrian (Ahura) Yasna. Unlike Vedic Yajna, Zoroastrian Yasna has "to do with water rather than fire".(Drower, 1944:78; Boyce, 1975:147-191)"....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajna#cite_ref-1

".....The Kurus figure prominently in the Rigveda. The Kurus here appear as a branch of the early Indo-Aryans, ruling the Ganga-Jamuna Doab and modern Haryana (earlier Eastern Punjab)......Kurukshetra was a plain-land south of the Saraswati and north of the Drishadwati (3,83). Many battles during the epic-age were fought there. The encounter of Gandharva king and Kuru king Chitrangada, the encounter between Bhishma and Bhargava Rama, and the Kurukshetra War, occurred there. It was also known as Brahmakshetra, due to its religious significance....".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuru_kingdom_(Mahabharata)

"Indo-Aryan Migration Controversy......"A recent translation of this legend has given rise to a heated controversy. As some recent Indian right wing politicians and writers deny any immigration into the Panjab from Central Asia of (Rg)vedic tribes into South Asia they also argue against Vedic passages that point to immigration. Such passages are difficult, though not impossible to detect. However, a few recent Indologists and other writers have noted that "there is no textual evidence in the early literary traditions unambiguously showing a trace of" an Indo-Aryan migration. A translation by M. Witzel (1989) of one passage of the BSS has been invoked as evidence in favor of the Aryan Migration and therefore became the object of much controversy: Then, there is the following direct statement contained in (the admittedly much later) BSS (=Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra) 18.44:397.9 sqq which has once again been overlooked, not having been translated yet: "Ayu went eastwards. His (people) are the Kuru Panchala and the Kasi-Videha. This is the Ayava (migration). (His other people) stayed at home. His people are the Gandhari, Parsu and Aratta. This is the Amavasava (group)" (M. Witzel. The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools:)......Based on Witzel's article, historians like Romila Thapar state that this passage contained literary evidence for Aryan migration. The historian Ram Sharan Sharma argued that this passage is "the most explicit statement of immigration into the Subcontinent." ......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudhayana_Shrauta_Sutra#cite_ref-6

"Vivāha (Sanskrit) or Vivaah (Hindi: विवाह) is a word used to describe a marriage as per Vedic traditions...Five Veda mantras are recited to sanctify the bride in preparation for the subsequent stages of the marriage. This aspect of the marriage is known as mangala snanam. The sun god (Surya), water god (Varuna), and other gods are invoked to purify the bride in preparation for a harmonious married life. Next, the bride wears the marriage clothes to the accompaniment of additional Veda mantras. The bridegroom then ties a darbha rope around the waist of the bride and leads her to the place, where the sacred fire is located for conducting the rest of the marriage ceremony. The bride and the groom sit on a new mat in front of the fire. The groom recites three mantras which invoke Soma, Gandharva and Agni to confer strength, beauty, and youth on the bride...".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivaah

"The Kalpa-sūtras, or rules of ceremonial, are of two kinds: the Śrautasūtras, which are based on the shruti, and teach the performance of the great sacrifices, requiring three or five sacrificial fires....The Śrautasutras (śrautasūtra) form a part of the corpus of Sanskrit Sutra literature. Their topics include instructions relating to the use of the shruti corpus in ritual ('kalpa') and the correct performance of rituals as such.....

"It was Baudhāyana who discovered the Pythagoras theorem. Baudhāyana listed Pythagoras theorem in his book called Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra (800 BCE). Incidentally, Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra is also one of the oldest books on advanced Mathematics. The actual shloka (verse) in Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra that describes Pythagoras theorem....Baudhāyana used a rope as an example in the above shloka which can be translated as – A rope stretched along the length of the diagonal produces an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together."....http://mysteriesexplored.wordpress.com/2011/08/31/baudhayana-pythagoras-theorem-world-guru-of-mathematics-part-8/

Criticisms of Witzel’s Translation of Baudhayana Srautasutra.....http://www.asthabharati.org/Dia_July06/vish.htm

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….August 2013

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