Wednesday, February 5, 2014

"Shambhala Lies North of The Sita River "


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"Tibetan texts mention that the Kingdom of Shambhala is located north of the river Sita…"

"…Obaidallah crossed the Sita River (aka: Kabul River) and made a raid on Kabul in 698"….

" Chitral is drained by the Kunar River which flows southward, through Afghanistan, to meet the East flowing Kabul River, which in times past, was known as the Sita, or White River."....

"Safēd Kōh (Urdu: سفید کوہ‎, "White Mountains"; also known as Spin Ghar (Pashto: سپين غر‎, "white mountain", the Indian Caucasus as late as the 19th century, the Safīd Mountain Range and as the Morga Range), is a mountain range in eastern Afghanistan and expanding well to North-Western Pakistan…..Its highest peak, straight and rigid Mount Sikaram, towers above all surrounding hills to 4,761 m (15,620 ft) above mean sea level. The Kabul River cuts a narrow trough through the Safēd Kōh mountains to flow eastward into the Indus River; otherwise, the range connects directly with the Shandur Top offshoot of the Hindu Kush mountain system.…..the Kabul basin is the Safed Koh, Spin-gar of the Afghans (' White Mountain,' not ... already named), an alpine chain, reaching in its highest summit, Sita Ram…..the Kabul basin is the Safed Koh, Spin-gar of the Afghans (“ White Mountain,” not ... Koh already named), an alpine chain, reaching, in its highest summit, Sita Ram, ... This southern watershed formed by the Safed Koh….Mount Sikaram is a mountain in the Spin Ghar range on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border south of the Kabul River and Khyber Pass. At 4,755 m (15,600 ft), it is the highest peak of the Spin Ghar."…..

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The Hindu Kush (Pashto/Persian: ھندوکُش Hindi: हिंदुकुश), also known as Pāriyātra Parvata (Sanskrit: पारियात्र पर्वत) or Paropamisadae (Greek: Παροπαμισάδαι)…In the time of Alexander the Great, the Hindu Kush range was referred to as the Caucasus Indicus or the "Indian Caucasus" (as opposed to the Greater Caucasus range between the Caspian and Black Seas),… an 800 km (500 mi) long mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan…..The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan…..It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus River) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. To the east the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir range near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan…..The mountain range separates Central Asia from South Asia."

"……separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu River (ancient Oxus)……. the Wardosh river and the tributaries of the river Arkari……

"The Kabul River (Persian/Urdu: دریای کابل‎; Pashto: کابل سیند‎, Sanskrit: कुभा ), the classical Cophes /ˈkoʊfiːz/, is a 700-kilometre (430 mi) long river that starts in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and ends in the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. The major tributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Panjshir, Kunar, Alingar, Bara and Swat rivers….In Arrian's The Campaigns of Alexander, the River Kabul is referred to as Κωφήν Kōphēn (Latin spelling Cophen), the accusative of Κωφής Kōphēs (Latin spelling Cophes)….

"In 672 an Arab governor of Sistan, Abbad ibn Ziyad, raided the frontier of Al-Hind and crossed the desert to Gandhara, but quickly retreated again. The marauder Obaidallah crossed the Sita River and made a raid on Kabul in 698 only to meet with defeat and humiliation."… ..

Sanskrit and Avesta…..Kubhā (कुभा ) which is the ancient name of the river is both a Sanskrit and Avestan word. Many of the rivers of Pakistan and Afghanistan are mentioned in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit word later changed to Kābul…..The Kubha is the modern Kabul river which flows into the Indus a little above Attock and receives at Prang the joint flow of its tributaries the Swat (Swastu) and Gauri ….In the older parts of the Rigved the Indian people appear to be settled on the north western border of India, in the Punjab and even beyond the Punjab on the borders of the Kubha river the Kowpher in Kabul. The gradual diffusion of these people from this point towards the east, beyond the Saraswati and Hindustan as far as the Ganges, can be traced almost step by step in the later portions of the Vedic writings……name of Kubha river given be people of Indus Civilization: Avestan Sarasvati…..

"Alexander the Great explored the Afghan areas between Bactria and the Indus River after his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC. It became part of the Seleucid Empire before falling to the Indian Maurya Empire around 305 BC…..Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the area to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later……Before the Christian era, and afterwards, there was an intimate connection between the Kabul Valley and India. All the passes of the Hindu-Kush descend into that valley; and travellers from the north as soon as they crossed the watershed, found a civilization and religion, the same as that which prevailed in India. The great range was the boundary in those days and barrier that was at times impassable. Hindu-Kuh—the mountain of Hind—was similarly derived…..Pre-Islamic populations of the Hindu Kush included Shins, Yeshkun, Chiliss, Neemchas, Koli, Palus, Gaware, Yeshkuns, Krammins, Indo-Scythians, Bactrian Greeks, and Kushans….."….E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936

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"The country of Kabul is very strong, and of difficult access, whether to foreigners Passes over or enemies. Between Balkh, Kunduz, and Badakhshan on the one side, and Kabul on the other, is interposed the mountain of Hindu-Kush, the passes over which are seven in number. Three of these are by Panjshir……Khewak, Tul, Bazarak, Perwan, Heft-becheh, Shibertu…Kipchak Pass leads by the junction of the rivers of Surkhab and Anderab. This is a good pass."….Memoirs of Zahir-Ed-Din Muhammed Baber, Emperor Of Hindustan

"Alexander in the Hindu Kush Mountains…marching through Afghanistan , subduing it as he went, he would cross the Hindu-Kush Mountains and descend on the plain of the Oxus from the east. First he advanced southward to secure Seistan and the northwestern regions of Baluchistan , then known as Gedrosia, wintering among the Ariaspa, a peaceful and friendly people whom the Greeks called "Benefactors." A Gedrosian satrapy was constituted with its capital at Pura. When spring came, Alexander pushed northeastward up the valley of the Helmand. The chief city which he founded in Arachosia was probably on the site of Kandahar, which seems to be a corruption of its name, Alexandria. The way led on over the mountains, past Ghazni, into the valley of the upper waters of the Cabul River , and Alexander came to the foot of the high range of the Hindu-Kush. The whole massive complex of mountains which diverge from the roof of the world, dividing southern from central, eastern from western, Asia — the Pamirs, the Hindu-Kush, and the Himalayas — were grouped by the Greeks under the general name of Caucasus. But the Hindu-Kush was distinguished by the special name of Paropamisus, while the Himalayas were called the Imaus. At the foot of the Hindu-Kush he spent the winter, and founded another Alexandria to secure this region, somewhere to the north of Kabul ; it was distinguished as Alexandria of the Caucasus. The crossing of the Caucasus, undertaken in the early spring, was an achievement which seems to have fallen little short of Hannibal 's passage of the Alps. The soldiers had to content themselves with raw meat and the herb of silphion as a substitute for bread. At length they reached Drapsaca, high up on the northern slope — the frontier fortress of Bactria. Having rested his way-worn army, Alexander went down by the stronghold of Aornus into the plain and marched to Bactra, now Balkh …….Bessus Artaxerxes, had stripped and wasted eastern Bactria up to the foot of the mountains, for the purpose of checking the progress of the invading army; but he fled across the Oxus when Alexander drew near. Another province was added without a blow to the Macedonian empire. Alexander lost no time in pursuing the fugitive into Sogdiana. This is the country which lies between the streams of the Oxus and the Jaxartes. It was called Sogdiana from the river Sogd, which loses itself in the sands of the desert before it approaches the waters of the Oxus. Bessus had burned his boats, and when Alexander, after a weary march of two or three days through the hot desert, arrived at the banks of the Oxus, he was forced to transport his army by the primitive vehicle of skins, which the natives of central Asia still use. Alexander's soldiers, however, instead of inflating the sheepskins with air, stuffed them with rushes. They crossed the river at Kilif and advanced to Maracanda, easily recognized as Samarkand ."…..A students' history of Greece. John Bagnell Bury, Everett Kimball, Editor Everett Kimball Macmillan, 1917

"Unlike the mountains of southern Pamir, the Hindu Kush all through the summer has snow and glaciers along the complete length of its ridge, and terrible snow-storms rage and whirl about these black ruin-like peaks……. the valley of the Vakhan Darya to the river Yarkhun……the mountain of Lunkho rising to 6900 meters above the sea, and the heights of Ssad Istragh, immediately to the east of the pass of Istragh, thrusting itself 7350 meters into the heavens….between the Arkari river and the valleys of Yarkhun, the highest peaks of the Hindu Kush spring upwards in two separate mountain giants—the northern peak, called Nushau, is 7460 meters high, its glaciers discernible from the town of Rang in Ishkashim— the southern peak, called Tirach-mir, reaches the great height of 7463 meters, and is one of the most magnificent and most imposing glacial formations of the world… the valley, where we were, it was lovely summer weather all the while; and we enjoyed without danger or chill these grand and imposing spectacles of wild nature."…..Through the Unknown Pamirs: The Second Danish Pamir Expedition 1898-99, Denmark.



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