Saturday, May 25, 2013

King Suddhodana : Father of the Buddha (583 BC)

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"Siddhartha Gautama was born about 583 BC, in or near what is now Nepal. His father, King Suddhodana, was leader of a large clan called the Shakya. His mother, Queen Maya, died shortly after his birth....When Prince Siddhartha was a few days old, a holy man prophesied the Prince would be either a great military conqueror or a great spiritual teacher. King Suddhodana preferred the first outcome and prepared his son accordingly. He raised the boy in great luxury and shielded him from knowledge of religion and human suffering. The Prince reached the age of 29 with little experience of the world outside the walls of his opulent palaces."

Shuddhodana (Skt. Śuddhodana; Wyl. rgyal po zas gtang ma) — King of the Shakyas and father of Prince Siddhartha, the future Buddha Shakyamuni....Siddhārtha Gautama as one belonging to the Shākya clan, a lineage in the solar dynasty whose members include figures from Indic legend.....http://www.universitypressscholarship.com

"Ādityas (Sanskrit: आदित्य, pronounced [ɑːd̪it̪jɐ]), meaning "of Aditi", refers to the offspring of Aditi. In later Hinduism, Aditya is used in the singular to mean the sun....the Sakya clan of the Buddha, a clan which also claimed to belong to the race of Aditya i.e. solar race.....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ādityas

"The Shakyas were of the Kshatriya solar race and called themselves rajas.... The Buddhist text Mahavamsa calls Chandragupta a scion of the Khattya (Kshatriya) clan named Moriya (Maurya). Divyavadana calls Bindusara, son of Chandragupta, an anointed Kshatriya, Kshatriya Murdhabhishikata, and in the same work, king Ashoka, son of Bindusara, is also styled a Kshatriya. The Mahaparinnibhana Sutta of the Buddhist canon states that the Moriyas belonged to the Kshatriya community of Pippalivana. These traditions, at least, indicate that Chandragupta may have come from a Kshatriya lineage. The ancient Greek scholar and historian Plutarch confirms or reinforces the Kshatriya origin of Chandragupta.....The commentary on the Mahavamsa connects him with the Sakya clan of the Buddha, a clan which also claimed to belong to the race of Aditya i.e. solar race. Ancient Jain texts Punyashrava Katha Kosh refers to Chanragupta as Kshatriya. A medieval inscription represents the Maurya clan as belonging to the solar race of Kshatriyas. It is stated that the Maurya line sprang from Suryavamsi Mandhatri, son of prince Yuvanashva of the solar race....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancestry_of_Chandragupta_Maurya

Shuddhodana....[浄飯王] (Skt; Pali Suddhodana; Jpn Jobonno)....of Kapilavastu in northern India and the father of Shakyamuni. According to the Sutra of the Collected Stories of the Buddha's Deeds in Past Lives, Shuddhodana was the eldest son of King Simhahanu. Shuddhodana's wife, Maya, died seven days after giving birth to Shakyamuni, after which he married Maya's younger sister, Mahaprajapati. With Mahaprajapati, he had another son, Nanda. Shuddhodana originally opposed his son Shakyamuni's desire to renounce the secular world and lead a religious life, but when Shakyamuni returned to his home Kapilavastu as the Buddha after his awakening, Shuddhodana converted to the Buddha's teachings. Five years after Shakyamuni's enlightenment, Shuddhodana is said to have died of illness at age seventy-nine (ninety-seven according to another account). The name Shuddhodana is rendered in Chinese translations of sutras as "Pure Rice.".....http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=2032

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"The Kingdom of Koshala in the Shakhya clan...Kosala (Sanskrit: कोसल) was an ancient Indian region, in present day Uttar Pradesh. According to the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jaina text, the Bhagavati Sutra, Kosala was one of the Solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (powerful realms) in 6th century BCE and its cultural and political strength earned it the status of great power. ...Shravasti was the capital of Kosala between 6th century BCE and 6th century CE......A Buddhist text, the Majjhima Nikaya mentions Buddha as a Kosalan....

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"Kshatriya, from (holder of) Kshatra (rule or authority), is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. ....Shakya was an ancient Janpada of India and it was an independent kingdom in the foothills of Himalayas. The capital of Shakya was Kapilvastu. The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Sakyas to the Ishvaku clan of Ayodhya in which Shri Rama was born. The famous kshatriya muni Gautam Buddha was born in the Shakya clan....."...http://shakya.kshatriya.tripod.com/sainthwar/

"Shakya kshatriyas were considering themselves as the purest breed of kshatriya. To protect their purity, they were doing same Gotriya(Sagotriya) marriage which is prohibited in Hinduism. This sentiment lead to mass scale massacre by king of Kosala after one incident....Prasenjit (Pasenadi) was suryavanshi kshatriya king of Kosala with its capital at Shravasti. He was prominent follower of Gautam Buddha and builds many Buddhist monasteries. After defeating Shakya republic, he asked for one Shakyan girl whom he will marry and make patrani (main queen). He also promised that the son born out of her would be the next king of Kosala.....Shakyas who were proud of the superiority of their blood took meeting in Santhagara at Kapilvastu. Santhagara decided that they would not give their girl even though she will be made patrani of Kosala. Then they decided that they would give the daughter of Nagmunda who was slave of Mahanaam Shakya, Uncle of Gautam Buddha. The slave girl, named Vasavkhattiya, was then given to king Prasenjit as Shakya girl. King married to Vasavkhattiya and gave birth to a boy who later became the Prince of Kosala. The name of prince was Virudhaka (Pali: Vidudabha).".....http://shakya.kshatriya.tripod.com/sainthwar/

"Ikshvaku (Sanskrit: इक्ष्वाकु,ikṣvāku (from the word Sanskrit: इक्षु,ikṣu which means ‘sugar cane’) pāli: Okkāka) was the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Ikshvaku-Vansh, or Suryavansh/Solar Dynasty of Kshatriyas in Vedic civilization in ancient India.

Shah (/ˈʃɑː/; Persian: شاه‎, [ʃɒː], king) is a title given to the kings and lords of Iran and India. It was continuously used in Persia and Greater Iran. In India, it was used by Mughal rulers. The word derives from the Old Iranian, Avestan xšaΘra, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit (Ancient Indian) kshatriya, "warrior". The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was XšāyaΘiya XšāyaΘiyānām, "King of Kings".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shah

"Kshatriya, from (holder of) Kshatra (rule or authority), is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. Traditionally, Kshatriya constitute the ruling and military elite of the Vedic-Hindu social system, as outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu. They were in charge of the protection of the Hindu society by fighting in wartime and governing in peacetime...Sanskrit akṣatra, ruling; one of the ruling order member of the Kṣhatriya caste[2] is the derivation for Old Persian xšaθra ("realm, power"), xšaθrya ("royal"), and xšāyaθiya ("emperor") are related to it, as are the New Persian words šāh ("emperor") and šahr ("city", "realm").[citation needed] Thai: กษัตริย์ (kasat), "king" or "monarch," and similar-sounding Malay kesatria or satria, "knight" or "warrior", are also derived from it. The term may also denote aristocratic status.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshatriya

"It has long been debated by scholars whether these Shakya people were part of or closely related to the great invading hordes of nomadic Iranian steppe peoples from central Asia - broadly called Sakai by the ancient Greeks, Śaka by the ancient vedic Indians, and Scythians by modern historians - who swept over present day Afghanistan, Pakistan and north western India in several waves approximately between 200 B.C. and 400 A.D. (Note that the Shakya people were known to have existed in the Himalayan regions several centuries before 200 B.C.)....

The word Shakya was used for the first time in Ashokan Pillar inscription of Lumbini, established when Emperor Ashok (BC 273-232) came to Lumbini on the 20th year of his coronation (BC 249). There it is inscribed: .....hida budhe jāte sakyamuniti.......... (Here Shakyamuni Buddha was born.) .....http://shakyanava.blogspot.com/2011/06/people-of-shakya-kingdom.html

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….July 2014

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