Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Gyalpo Pehar: Oracle God of the Dalai Lama


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"Pehar (the principal oracle god of the Dalai Lama) was originally a bitter arch-enemy of the Tibetans."….http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/dalai_lama/Part-2-07.htm

"Another set of deities are the White Old Man, a sky god, and his consort. They are known by a few different names, such as "Pe-Har" and "bDud-gza’-smin-dkar." Pe-har is featured as a protecting deity of Zhanzhung, the center of the Bon religion. Reportedly, Pe-har is related to celestial heavens and the sky in general. In early Lamaist times, Pe-Har transmogrified into a shamanic bird to adapt to the bird motifs of shamanism. Pe-har’s consort is a female deity known by one of her names as bDud-gza’-smin-dkar" (Stein 1954 in Hummel 1962).

Gyalpo Pehar, guardian of Samye and termas riding Snow Lion mural painting.....By Maciej Wojtkowiak

"According to some Tibetan sources, Emperor Tri Songdetsen launched a campaign against the Bhata Hor (Bha-ta Hor) in the Lake Baikal region in order to bring the protector Pehar (Pe-har) to Tibet. [The Bhata Hor refer to the Uighur Turks of the Orkhon Uighur Empire (745 – 840). That empire included Mongolia and the Lake Baikal region of southern Siberia, north of Mongolia. Pehar (Pe-har) refers to a group of five protector spirits, known as the Five Bodily Manifest Kings (rGyal-po sKu-lnga), or to just one of them, the King of Enlightening Influence (‘Phrin-las rgyal-po). With his special powers, Padmasambhava foresaw that Pehar would be the appropriate spiritual protector for Tibet. The Bhata Hor were the http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts/survey_tibetan_history/chapter_1.html

"….historical records indicate that the present Uyghurs were formed by admixture between Tocharians from the west and Orkhon Uyghurs (Wugusi-Huihu, according to present Chinese pronunciation) from the east in the 8th century CE…..The earliest Uyghur written language was in the runic Orkhon script. After the Uyghurs moved into the Qocho/Turfan area, the Uyghurs adapted the Sogdian alphabet, writing it vertically and this system came to be known as the Old Uyghur alphabet. They later adopted the Arabic script after the introduction of Islam, and this is now known as the Chagatay alphabet. "…..http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur_people

"…The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk and other early Turkic Khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language….The script is named after the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia, where early 8th-century inscriptions were discovered in an 1889 expedition by Nikolay Yadrintsev. These Orkhon inscriptions were published by Vasily Radlov and deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. The discovery of short runic inscriptions on a great number of articles for common personal use proves that the knowledge and use of the runic script was generally spread among the old Turkic tribes."….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkhon_script

"Bonpos cultivate household gods in addition to other deities:…Traditionally in Tibet divine presences or deities would be incorporated into the very construction of the house making it in effect a castle (dzong) against the malevolent forces outside it. The average Tibetan house would have a number of houses or seats (poe-khang) for the male god (pho-lha) that protects the house. Everyday, the man of the house would invoke this god and burn juniper wood and leaves to placate him. In addition the woman of the house would also have a protecting deity (phuk-lha) whose seat could be found within the kitchen usually at the top of the pole that supported the roof….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bon"

"The question soon arises as to why of all gods Pehar, the former ferocious and cruel opponent of the Land of Snows, was given the delicate office of being a supernatural governmental advisor to the Tibetan “god-king”. Surely this would have sooner been the entitlement of a Bodhisattva like Avalokiteshvara or a national hero like Gesar of Ling…..With this question too, the key is to be sought in the “political theology” of the “Great Fifth Dalai Lama”. We may recall that both the conferring of the title of Dalai Lama and the establishment of the hierarch’s secular power were the actions of the Mongolians and not of the Tibetan people. In contrast, as we have reported, in the 17th century the national forces of the country were actually gathered under the kings of Tsang and around the throne of the Karmapa (the leader of the “red” Kagyupa sect). Thus, it does not take much fantasy to be able to sketch out why Pehar was chosen as the advisor of the “yellow” Buddhist state (then represented by the Fifth Dalai Lama). It was expected of the former Mongolian god and opponent of Tibet that he tame the recalcitrant Tibetans (who supported the Karmapa). In this his interests were in complete accord with those of the “god-king”. Additionally, the “Great Fifth” himself was a descendant of an aristocratic family which traced its lineage back to the Hor Mongols. Pehar, the later state oracle, is thus a foreign deity imposed upon the Tibetan people."…..http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/dalai_lama/Part-2-07.htm

Gyalpo Peha…"According to Tibetan Buddhist myth, Gyalpo Pehar (Tibetan: རྒྱལ་པོ་དཔེ་ཧར, Wylie: rgyal po dpe har [also spelt: pe kar & dpe dkar]) is a spirit belonging to the gyalpo class. When Padmasambhava arrived in Tibet in the eighth century, he subdued all gyalpo spirits and put them under control of Gyalpo Pehar, who promised not to harm any sentient beings and was made the chief guardian spirit of the Samye Temple built at that time. Some Tibetans believe that the protector of Samye sometimes enters the body of a medium (called the "Dharma Lord of Samye") and acts as an oracle."

Pehar was Uigur in origin -- the yidam of the Hor tribal people. in origin -- the yidam of the Hor tribal people.

"Deity King Pehar in absolute sense is an emanation of the five Buddhas and in ordinary (common) sense appears as a Deity, Protector Pehar. Here is his history: Many eons, many kalpas ago he was born as the King Damaraja of Asura coutry. At the same time another boy was born as a minister's son. They became good friends. Then they became monks, ordained by abbot Dawe ("moon light"). Damaraja's religious name was Dawe Shinu, his friend's religious name was Tunten Nagpo. Dawe Shinu became a scholar, who enjoyed teaching Dharma, his friend enjoyed meditating. One day Dawe Shinu went to visit a Hindu Temple where he met a beautiful girl named Zitan Metog Ke. Extremely strong desire arose in him toward her. They made love in the Temple. Dawe Shinu broke his vows. They were making love in the Temple for 7 days. His friend, monk Tunten Nagpo came there trying to stop them, but he could not. Dawe Shinu got angry and turned himself into a wild lion and threatened his friend, trying to kill him. Vajrapani protected Tunten Nagpo with His Vajra. Later Dawe Shinu died and he was born in hell, where his name was the Buthcher's horse and where he had suffered a lot. Then he was reborn as a human being, but he was very poor and homeless and he was wandering around. One day he met again his former friend Tunten Nagpo and they did not like each other. Then Dawe Shinu was born in the family of king Muche Tsampo and queen Lumo Tongon. His name was Vajra Kuhe Samati. Again, Tunten Nagpo was meditating in the cave and Vajra Kuhe Samati turned himself into a rat, trying to disturb his former friend. Again, Vajprapani protected Tunten Nagpo. Then Vajra Kuhe Samati (Dawe Shinu) was born as a son of Dudje Tsempo, the king of ancient demons. His name in this rebirth was Mudu Tankhar. His father had five children and he was the third son. Present King Pehar is a reincarnation of Mudu Tankhar. King Pehar has three faces, six arms and he is riding a lion. He is known as a King of Trinle, King of Action. However, when Guru Rinpoche and the Tibetan King Trisum Detsen built the Samye monastery, Guru Rinpoche invited this Deity, King Pehar, from the place, called Petahor. Guru Rinpoche gave him a wife, Mentsun Karmo, and another girlfriend. They built a place for King Pehar in the Northen side of Samye monastery. Even today there is a room called Peharchok. Guru Rinpoche invited many other Deities as well and built many temples for them around Samye. Pehar's temple is called the Turquoise Palace. His wife is Mentsun Karmo. Thus is the history of King Pehar.

"…. in Dharamsala the divinatory arts, astrology, the interpretation of dreams, and even the drawing of lots still have a most decisive (!) influence upon the politics of the Tibetans in exile. Every (!) politically significant step is first taken once the mediums, soothsayers, and court astrologers have been consulted, every important state-political activity requires the invocation of the wrathful Mongolian god, Pehar. This tendency has increased in recent years. Today there are said to be three further mediums (who represent different deities) whose services are made use of. Among these is a young and attractive girl from an eastern province of Tibet."……http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/dalai_lama/Part-2-07.htm

Pehar....Central Tibet....19th century.....Rubin Museum of Art....http://www.rubinmuseum.org

"There are five aspects of Pehar: The Body, Mind, Speech, Knowledge and Activity aspects. The Mind aspect (Tuk ki Gyalpo) of Pehar is brown color with one face and two arms. His right hand is holding a red spear, his left hand is holding a double-edged sword and a lasso. He is wearing a bear skin chale and a black turban. He is riding an elephant, in the midst of fire. The Body aspect (Ku?i Gyalpo) of Pehar is dark blue, with one face and two arms. His right hand is holding a vajra and is left hand is holding a single cymbal. He wears a round hat (tipshu) shaped like a cymbal, gold color, and is riding a black bear. The Knowledge aspect (Yonten kyi Gyalpo) of Pehar is black, with one face and two arms. His right hand is holding an ax, his left a demon?s lasso. He is wearing a tiger skin chale and a black snake skin, and is riding a dragon. The Speech aspect (Sung gi Gyalpo) of Pehar is dark brown, with one face and two arms. His right hand is holding a stick, his left hand a sandal wood club. He wears a black robe and is riding an iron wolf. The Activity aspect (Thinley gyi Gyalpo) of Pehar is navy blue, with three faces and six arms. His first right hand holds a hook, the second an arrow and the third a sword. His first left hand is holding a razor sharp knife, the second a bow and the third a stick. He wears a cymbal-shaped hat, a white chale, tiger skin and leopard skin skirt and is riding a snow lion…"..http://www.himalayanart.org/image.cfm/213.htm

"Nechung, the Chief State Oracle of Tibet….Nechung KutenNechung, the Chief State Oracle, Nechung Monastery and Deyang Monastery have a very special connection and great significance in the Culture and History of Tibet. It is important to realize the entire scope of the relationship between these institutions and protective entities……Nechung refers to the Dharma Protector and the Chief Tibetan Oracle, as well as the Monastery. This Nechung Protector is related to the emanations of the Five Wisdom Buddha Families and their corresponding principles of Body, Speech, Mind, Qualities and Activities…..Pehar, the King of Activity is often considered to be the Chief of these five Nechung Protectors. The Nechung Oracle, Dorje Drakden, is the Emissary of the Five Kings, primarily an emanation of the King of Speech. He is the actual presence that speaks through the Nechung Medium. His manifestation is similar to a wise elder and has a wrathful persona of an ancient lord. He speaks in poetic verse, and in symbolic actions. When in trance, the Medium is dressed in the ceremonial garb of ancient times. He is consulted only by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the Ministers of State, and high Lamas with questions on important issues."….http://nechung.org/oracle/about.php

"Video Commentary: The Oracle…..This is the altar room in the private house of Gelek Choesang himself……The first thing to be done is dressing him. As I said before, the dress of the oracle, the kuten, represents the iconography of the deity. In this case, the deity which possesses Gelek Choesang is called Karma Trinley (karma ‘phrin las). Most probably this Karma Trinley is an emanation or a minor aspect of the god Gyalpo Pehar (rgyal po pe har), who is the deity having the same principle as that which possesses the Nechung kuteng. It’s a sort of side emanation. Karma Trinley does not come alone. He has a number of attendants, generally one male and one female attendant. Alternatively they possess and show themselves in the body of Gelek Choesang. You can also clearly see this as it is marked by a change of his attitude, his voice, how he behaves and so on. The dress is generally quite complicated with several layers of brocades and it has a special mirror which is put on the heart area. There is also a silver sword and a big ring on the right thumb. The mirror is particularly important because it is said, for example, in the case of the Nechung oracle, that the mirror is the place where the deity enters because it is on the heart chakra, the heart centre which represents mind.
According to Thupten Ngodup, the Nechung kuten, the deity takes the place of the mind of the kuten and the mind of the kuten resides temporarily in the mirror. Then there is the particular feature of the hat, which in the case of the Nechung oracle is a re- ally heavy helmet. In the case of this kuten, it’s just a silken cap with three frowning eyes embroidered on it, which also represents the iconography of Karma Trinley, who has three eyes in his forehead.
These are the preliminary invocations. ….First there are more general Buddhist practices and offerings being prepared such as Bhutanese alcohol. The abode of Karma Trinley is generally a cremation ground and it is quite horrible as it is full of human remains in typically tantric style. The text describes the dwelling of Karma Trinley and then the oracle starts the formal invocation. You see that the kuten starts to get into a confused state; he has a lot of perspiration, his eyes go backwards and generally when the trance starts, he starts shaking visibly, especially his legs. So after the description of the abode, the text describes the deity: his iconography, his mount which is a horse, and his attendants. The attendants have the duty to notice a particular moment in which he stops breathing. Well before that happens, they have to place the hat on his head and then at a certain moment when he stops breathing, they tie it very tight under his chin. This is supposed to block the deity inside the body and prevent it from leaving. So the text now says, “Tremendous Splendour, if we invite you with musical offerings, please come”. He seems to be crying now and it was later explained that the female attendant of Karma Trinley was unhappy because the worship of her in the valley was insufficient. She had felt neglected in the home rituals and so the kuten manifested in this way, crying. Now a third deity has his turn and he is also upset because some rules of purity that have to be observed before the ritual, i.e. abstinence from meat, fish, garlic, onion and ginger, were not observed properly. These should have been observed by the kuten and other participants. Since they were not observed properly, the deity was angry. This is a very typical phase in oracular trances, when the deity sort of draws the sword towards himself and sometimes it is said that the sword bends. In these valleys, you can often see a bent sword hanging from above the door at the entrance of monasteries and tem- ples. Supposedly it is an apotropaic object which is produced in oracular rituals [ed.i.e. an object which is supposed to have the power to avert evil influences.
The deity or deities have gone now and the kuten is left exhausted. The monk now chants some con- cluding verses in order to accompany the deities back to their abode and thank them for their help."…..Tibetan Oracles and Himalayan Shamans - Shang Shung Institute UK

"The Tibetan state oracle…..In the Tibet of old, the state oracle (or rather its human medium) lived, as one of the highest ranking lamas in the Nechung residence. “It” had at its command a considerable “court” and celebrated its liturgies in a temple of its own. The predominant color of the interior temple was black. On the walls of the gloomy shrine hung mysterious weapons, from which great magical effects were supposed to emanate. In the corners lurked stuffed birds, tigers, and leopards. Pictures of terror gods looked back at the visitor, who suddenly stood in front of a mask of dried leather feared across the whole country. Among the chief iconographic motifs of the temple was the depiction of human ribcages.…….At the beginning of an oracle session, the Nechung Lama is sent into a trance via all manner of ritual song and incense. After a while eyes close, his facial muscles begin to twitch, his brow becomes dark red and glistens with sweat. The prophet god then visibly enters him, then during his trance the medium develops — and this is confirmed by photographs and western eyewitness reports — almost superhuman powers. He can bend iron swords and, although he carries a metal crown weighing over 80 pounds (!) on his head, perform a wild dance. Incomprehensible sounds come from his foaming lips. This is supposed to be a sacred language. Only once it has been deciphered by the priests can the content of the oracle message be recognized.
The deity conjured up by the Nechung Lama is called Pehar or Pedkar. However often only his adjutant is invoked, Dorje Drakden by name. This is because a direct appearance by Pehar can be so violent that it threatens the life of his medium (the Nechung Lama). Pehar has under his command a group of five wrathful gods, who together are called the “protective wheel”. It seems sensible to make a few thoughts about this prophesying god, who has for centuries exercised such a decisive influence upon Tibetan politics and still continues to do so…..In iconographic representations, Pehar has three faces of different colors. He wears a bamboo hat which is crowned with a vajra upon his head. In his hands he holds a bow and arrow, a sword, a cleaver, and a club. His mount is a snow lion…..Pehar’s original home lay in the north of Tibet, there where in the conception of the old Tibetans (in the Gesar epic) the “devil’s country” was to be found. In earlier times he reigned as war god of the Hor Mongols. According to the sagas, this wild tribe was counted among the bitterest opponents of the pre-Buddhist Tibetans and their national hero, Gesar of Ling."…..http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/dalai_lama/Part-2-07.htm

Hor….."Khwarezm has been known also as Chorasmia, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Harezm, Horezm, and Chorezm….In Avestan the name is Xvairizem, in Old Persian Huwarazmish, in Modern Persian خوارزم (Khwārazm), in Arabic خوارزم Khwārizm, in Old Chinese *qʰaljɯʔmriɡ(呼似密), modern Chinese Huālázǐmó (花剌子模), in Kazakh Хорезм, in Uzbek Xorazm, in Turkmen Horezm, in Turkish Harezm, in Greek Χορασμία and Χορασίμα, by Herodotus….The Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his Muʿǧam al-buldan wrote that the name was a compound (in Persian) of khwar (خوار), and razm (رزم), referring to the abundance of cooked fish as a main diet of the peoples of this area…..C.E. Bosworth however, believes the Persian name to be made up of (خور) meaning "the sun" and (زم) meaning "Earth", designating "the land from which the sun rises", although the same etymology is also given for Khurasan. Another view is that the Iranian compound stands for "lowland" from kh(w)ar "low" and zam "earth, land.".Khwarezm is indeed the lowest region in Central Asia (except for the Caspian Sea to the far west), located on the delta of the Amu Darya on the southern shores of the Aral Sea. Various forms of khwar/khar/khor/hor are commonly used also in the Persian Gulf to stand for tidal flats, marshland, or tidal bays (e.g., Khor Musa, Khor Abdallah, Hor al-Azim, Hor al-Himar, etc.)….The name also appears in Achaemenid inscriptions as Huvarazmish, which is declared to be part of the Persian Empire…..Some of the early scholars believed Khwarezm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as Airyanem Vaejah ("Ariyaneh Waeje"; later Middle Persian Iran vij)…. These sources claim that Old Urgench, which was the capital of ancient Khwarezm for many years, was actually Ourva, the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad….However, Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Airyanem Vaejah was located in what is now Afghanistan, the northern areas of which were a part of ancient Khwarezm and Greater Khorasan….. Others, however, disagree. University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believes Khwarezm to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people, and Dehkhoda calls Khwarezm "مهد قوم آریا" ("the cradle of the Aryan tribe")."…..http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarezm



John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….December 2013


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