"The Naiman, (Khalkha-Mongolian: Найман/Naiman, "eight") is a Southern Mongolian ethnic group in Naiman Banner, Inner Mongolia....There is a small population of Naimans in Afghanistan. They belong to the Hazara tribe and reside in the Sheikh Ali valley. They are Shia Muslims....Modern Kazakh historians claim that more than 2,000,000 of the Kazakh population are Naimans."
Naiman Warrior in Center
"The Naimans, also Naiman Turkics, (kazakh language: Найман хандығы) Naiman in Mongolian language means "eight", because Naimans were direct descendants of the Segiz Ogyz people, "segiz" means "eight" in the Kazakh language. They were a Mongolian name given to a group of Turkic tribes dwelling on the steppe of Central Asia, having diplomatic relations with the Kara-Khitan, and subservient to them until 1177. The Naimans are most often classified as a Turkic people from Segiz Oghyz (means 'Eight Oghuz' in Turkic)."
"Like the Khitans and the Uyghurs, many of the Naimans were Nestorian Christians or Buddhists. When last Tayan Khan was killed after a battle with Genghis Khan in 1203, his son Kuchlug with his remaining Naiman troops fled to the Kara-Khitan. Kuchlug was well received there and the Khitan Khan gave him his daughter in marriage. Kuchlug soon began plotting against his new father-in-law, and after he usurped the throne, he began to persecute Muslims in the Hami Oases. But his action was opposed by local people and he was later defeated by the Mongols under Jebe."
"The Kereit (Mongolian: Хэрэйд; Kazakh: Керейт) was the most dominant tribe of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian plateau during the 12th century. As allies of Genghis Khan, the Kerait were influential in the rise of the Mongol Empire. In the 11th century, they converted to Nestorian Christianity and were a key example of prominent Christians among the Mongols.....The Kereit were located between the mountain ranges of Khangai and Khentii and were centered on the site of the present day city of Ulaanbaatar and in the willow groves of the Tuul River, to the west of the Khamag Mongol and to the east of the Naiman."
"Kuchlug (also spelled Küchlüg, Küçlüg, Güčülüg) was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia. He was defeated by Genghis Khan and fled westward to the Kara-Khitan Khanate, where he became an advisor. In 1210, he took control of the khanate. He was killed by the Mongols when they conquered the region in 1218....Kuchlug was from the Naiman tribe, which were Nestorians. His wife, daughter of the Gur-khan, was a Buddhist, and convinced him to adopt Buddhism. However, in contrast to the policy of religious tolerance of the previous Kara-Khitan Gur-khans, once Kuchlug assumed power, he was reported to have instituted anti-Muslim policies. According to Persian historian Ata-Malik Juvayni, he would demand that a town’s Muslim population make a choice between either converting to Nestorianism or Buddhism, or donning Khitan garment, of which the population would choose to wear Khitan clothing.He was also reported to have crucified the imam of Hotan onto the door of his madrassa. His anti-Muslim policies and struggle against Muhammad may have served to inspire the legend of another incarnation of the Christian king of the Far East Prester John."
History of Civilizations of Central Asia
"Naiman means "Eight" - the Naiman people were called like this because they were made up of eight tribes. They also had a Turkic names, "Säkizlär", which also ment "Eight (Tribes)". There is a theory that they were the descendents the Säkiz Oġuz (Sekiz Oguz, Eight Tribes) mentioned in the early Uyghur inscription of Shine Usu written for Bayan Čor Qaġan (Bayan Chor Qaghan) in the mid-8th century, but there is nothing else to prove that.....Where is the original land of Naiman? How they came in Afghanistan?."....http://steppes.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=board20&action=display&thread=371
"In the twelfth century, the social system of Mongols was characterized as the clan system. They formed big or small clans according to their blood relationships, and a few clans formed a tribe. Tata, Tai Chiwu, Kelie, Naiman and Mierqi were big tribes at that time.......
"The Kara-Khitan or Qara-Khitai Khanate (Mongolian: Хар Хятан; Persian: خانات قراختایی), also known as Western Liao (simplified Chinese: 西辽; traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: Xī Liáo) (1124-1218) was a Khitan empire in Central Asia. The dynasty was founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao Dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in North and Northeast of modern-day China. The empire was usurped by the Naimans under Kuchlug in 1211; traditional Chinese, Persian and Arab sources considered the usurpation to be the end of the Kara-Khitan rule. The empire was later taken by the Mongol Empire in 1218."......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kara-Khitan_Khanate
"The people who lived in Steppes were overwhelmingly horsemen. Many were at least semi-nomadic with herds of livestock. Nomadism explains why there were waves of occupants. These Steppe people, Central Eurasians, traveled to and mated with people in the peripheral civilizations. Herodotus is one of our main literary sources for the Steppe tribes."....
Click on the map to enlarge
"The Türks or the Kök Türks (Old Turkic: Old Turkic letter UK.svgOld Turkic letter R2.svgOld Turkic letter U.svgOld Turkic letter T2.svg Old Turkic letter K.svgOld Turkic letter U.svgOld Turkic letter UK.svg Chinese: 突厥; pinyin: Tūjué), also known as Ashina/Açina Turks and sometimes as its Anatolian Turkish version Göktürks (Celestial/Blue Turks), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.....Tengriism was the traditional religion of the Türks. After the fall of the khaganate some of Türk descendants followed the Uyghur Khaganate and received missionaries from the Manichaeism religion. Eventually part of them were Buddhists and parts were Muslim, depending on the region they settled down....At their peak, the Tujue ruled all the lands between Crimea, Âzarbaijân, Khorâsân, Central Afghanistân, Kashmir, Tibet, the Chinese Great Wall, Central Manchuria and of course the Siberian forests. This would include Inner & Outer Mongolia, Jungaria, Southern Yenisei Basin, Semirechie, Transoxiana, Tianshan, Tarim Basin, Northern Afghanistân and the Kazak-Caspian Steppes."
John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….January 2013