Saturday, August 31, 2013

The Rivers & Mountains of Sumeru


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"..the four great rivers that flow from Mount Meru....Cosmology in existing Hindu texts... as being surrounded by Mandrachal Mountain to the east, Supasarv Mountain to the west, Kumuda Mountain to the north and Kailash to the south.

Tirich Mir (Urdu: ترچ میر‎) (alternatively Terich Mir, Terichmir and Turch Mir) is the highest mountain of the Hindu Kush range, and the highest mountain in the world outside of the Himalayas-Karakoram range, located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, near the Afghanistan–Pakistan border.

"The dimensions attributed to Mount Meru, all the references to it being as a part of the Cosmic Ocean, along with several statements like that the Sun along with all the planets (including Earth itself) circumbulate the mountain, make determining its location most difficult, according to most scholars. However, a small handful number of western scholars have tried quite hard to identify Mount Meru or Sumeru with the Pamirs, north-east of Kashmir."..Graham P. Chapman - Social Science; The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus, p 15.

Kumuda is also a Puranic name of a mountain forming the northern buttress of Mount Meru, also known as Sumeru (Pamirs). It extended between headwaters of Oxus and Jaxartes.

From the lakes of that plateau issue four great rivers: the Indus, the Jaxartes, the Oxus, and Tarim.

The Tarim River (Mandarin Tǎlǐmù Hé, 塔里木河; Uyghur: تارىم دەرياسى) is the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. It gives its name to the great Tarim Basin between the Tian Shan and Kunlun Mountains systems (the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau) of Central Asia.....It is the longest inland river in China & home to nearly 10 million Uyghur and other ethnic minorities....The name Tarim is applied to the river formed by the union of the Aksu River, flowing from the north, and Yarkand River, coming from the southwest, near the Aral City in western Xinjiang.

The Jaxartes River......The Syr Darya[pronunciation?] (Persian: سيردريا‎; Tajik: Сирдарё; Kazakh: Сырдария ; Arabic: سيحون‎; Uzbek: Sirdaryo), also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo, is a river in Central Asia, sometimes known as the Jaxartes or Yaxartes from its Ancient Greek name Ἰαξάρτης. The Greek name is derived from Old Persian, Yakhsha Arta ("Great Pearly"), a reference to the color of the river's water. In medieval Arabic writings, the river is uniformly known as Sayhoun (سيحون) - and is considered one of the four rivers whose common source lies in Paradise....The river rises in two headstreams in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan—the Naryn River and the Kara Darya—...Gaxares

The Oxus River.....Amu Darya/Jayhoun...The Amu Darya (Persian: آمودریا‎, Āmūdaryā; Arabic: جيحون‎, Jihôn or Jayhūn'; Hebrew: גּוֹזָן‎, Gozan, Uzbek, Amudaryo, Ancient Greek: Ὦξος, Oxos; Latin: Oxus; Tajik: Амударё; Turkmen: 'Amyderýa'), also called Amu River (Pashto: د آمو سيند‎, da Āmú Sínd; Chinese: 阿姆河; pinyin: Āmǔ hé), is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers. In ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Ariana and Turan.....Amu Darya is a river sourced by a powerful glacier-fed stream high in the Pamir Knot at the eastern end of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor..."Hara (Bokhara) and to the river of Gozan (that is to say, the Amu, (called by Europeans the Oxus)...."the Gozan River is the River Balkh, i.e. the Oxus or the Amu Darya.."... and were brought into Halah (modern day Balkh), and Habor (which is Pesh Habor or Peshawar), and Hara (which is Herat), and to the river Gozan (which is the Ammoo, also called Jehoon)..."....Since the end of the 19th century there have been four different claimants as the true source of the Oxus: 1: the Pamir River, which emerges from Lake Zorkul (once also known as Lake Victoria) in the Pamir Mountains (ancient Mount Imeon), and flows west to Qila-e Panja, where it joins the Wakhan River to form the Panj River. 2: the Sarhad or Little Pamir River flowing down the Little Pamir in the High Wakhan 3: Lake Chamaktin, which discharges to the east into the Aksu River, which in turn becomes the Murghab and then Bartang rivers, and which eventually joins the Panj Oxus branch 350 kilometres downstream at Roshan Vomar in Tajikistan. 4: an ice cave at the end of the Wakhjir valley, in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, near the border with Pakistan.

The Indus River.....The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through western Tibet and northern India. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit and Baltistan and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh....The Indus forms the delta of Pakistan and India mentioned in the Vedic Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Iranian Zend Avesta as Hapta Hindu (both terms meaning "seven rivers"). The river has been a source of wonder since the Classical Period, with King Darius of Persia sending Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river as early as 510 BC.....In Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, the Indus is known as درياۓ سِندھ (Daryā-e Sindh). In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु नदी (Sindhu Nadī) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ (Sindh) in Punjabi, સિંધુ નદી (Sindhu) in Gujarati; اباسين (Abāsin, lit. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, رود سند (Rūd-e Sind) in Persian, نهر السند (Naḥar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ (Sênggê Zangbo, lit. "Lion River") in Tibetan, and Nilab in Turki.

The Helmand River (also spelled Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand; Pashto/Persian: هیرمند, هلمند Hīrmand, Helmand, Greek: Ἐτύμανδρος (Etýmandros), Latin: Erymandrus) is the longest river in Afghanistan and the primary watershed for the endorheic Sistan Basin....The name comes from Avestan Haētumant, literally "dammed, having a dam", cognate with Sanskrit Setumanta "having a dam", which referred to the Helmand River and the irrigated areas around it.The name was borrowed into Greek and Latin as a compound with Eastern Iranian *raha (cf. Scythian Rha "Volga"), "river". Helmand Province is named after the river.......The Helmand River stretches for 1,150 km (710 mi). It rises in the Hindu Kush mountains, about 80 km (50 mi) west of Kabul

The Jambu River......"The ruling king of Shambhala sits on a throne made of gold from the Jamba River."...."the Devas always worship and chant the names of the Devī, the Remover of all obstacles. She is installed on both the banks of the Jambū river. If men recite Her names Kokilākṣī, Karuṇā, Kāmapūjītā, Kaṭhoravigrahā, Devapūjyā, Dhanyā, Gavastinī and worship, so they get their welfare both in this world and in the next. With the juice of the Jambū fruit aided by the combination of the wind and the rays of the Sun, is created the gold. Out of this are made the ornaments for the wives of the Immortals and the Vidyādharas. This gold, created by the Daiva, is known by the name of the Jāmbūnada gold.".....śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam/d/doc57294.html

"Mount Imeon area with the ancient Bulgar lands according to Acad. Suren T. Eremian’s reconstruction of the original ‘Ashharatsuyts’ map of Central Asia......( Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan.....

four great rivers issue, the Indus, the Helmend, the Oxus, and the Gaxares,

The main branch of the Amu Daria or Oxus forms an outlet to Lake Victoria, several others of its tributaries flowing also from the plateau, as seen on our map. The Oxus is still called by the natives the Gihun. Both the Chitral and the Gilgit branches of the Indus. have their origin close to Lake Victoria on the southern side of the Pamirs, and so also has the Yarkand River, which together with the Kashgar forms the Tarim River.....the Oxus is known as the river Jayhoun (جيحون) which is derived from Gihon, the biblical name for one of the four rivers of the Garden of Eden.

"Mount Imeon was famous for its lapis lazuli deposits in western Badakhshan, indicated on Shirakatsi’s map. The mines at Sar-e-Sang have been producing lapis lazuli for millennia now, supplying the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and Rome, and still yielding the world’s finest lapis. The Venetian adventurer Marco Polo visited the mines in 1271 during his famous journey to China, following the Silk Road to cross the mountains by way of Wakhan."....The Travels of Marco Polo, by Henry Yule (1903), and Henry Cordier (1920).

"Renan tells us, quoted by Buchanan, pp. 123-124:.....“Thus everything invites us to place the Garden of Eden in the mountains of Belurtag, at the point where this chain unites with the Himalaya, toward the Plateau of Pamir... We are conducted to the same point, according to Brunoff, by the most ancient and authentic texts of the Zend-Avesta. The Hindu traditions also contained in the Mahabbarata and the Puranas, converge to the same region. There is the true Meru (Ararat) (of the Hindus), the true Albordj (of the Persians), the true river Arvanda, from which all rivers take their source, according to Persian tradition. There, according to the opinions of almost all the populations of Asia, is the central point of the world, the umbilici, the gate of the universe. There is the Uttarakura; ‘the country of happiness,’ of which Magesthanes writes. There is, finally the point of common attachment of the primitive geography, both of the Semitic and the Indo-European races.”

"Within the territory of Olmo Lung-ring..... there are eight great rivers in different directions and in the valleys along these rivers the peoples speak different languages and dialects. Whereas the language in the inner lands is that of the Swastika Gods, here in the twelve middle lands the people mainly speak and write the eight transformed languages (bsgyur-ba'i skad), each of which is associated with one of the eight great rivers as follows: 1. "gTsang-ma lha skad" along the Na-ra-dza-ra river in the east, 2. "Dag-pa lha skad" along the Pakshu river in the the north, 3. "Samskri lha skad" (i.e., Sanskrit) along the Ma-shang river in the west, 4. "Khri-wer lha skad" along the Sindhu river in the south, 5. "Hor ci 'phrul skad" along the Ganga river in the south east, 6. "sPos ci 'phrul skad" along the Sita river in the southwest, 7. "Ci gung 'phrul skad" along the Seng-ga river in the northwest, and 8. "Cung tshe 'phrul skad" along the Serdan (gser-ldan) river in the northeast. .....

"Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring....four rivers flow from simulacra of archetypal thoughtforms: from the simulacrum of a snowlion the river Narazara flows from the East; from the simulacrum of a horse the river Pakshi flows from the North; from the simulacrum of a peacock the river Gyim Shang flows from the West; and from the simulacrum of an elephant the river Sindhu flows from the South.".....


John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….August 2013


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