"There are known to have been other famous temples dedicated to the sun called Shams or Shamba in Balkh, the ancient capital of the Bactrian kingdom in northern Afghanistan, and in Multan which according to Alberuni used to be called Shambha-pura (City of the Vision of the Sun) in the pre-Islamic period."
".....in Multan which according to Alberuni used to be called Shambha-pura (City of the Vision of the Sun) in the pre-Islamic period. In Multan, the great annual festival of the year was celebrated in honor of the sun and there are descriptions of the golden idol representing the sun to support this identification. Though the temple was destroyed after Alberuni saw it, the sun god Surya in Multan (as in many other Indian temples) is described as wearing "northern" (central Asian) nomadic dress, including in this case red leather boots....."
"Kanishka (Kanishka the Great), (Sanskrit: कनिष्क, Bactrian language: Κανηϸκι, Middle Chinese: 迦腻色伽 (Ka-ni-sak-ka > New Chinese: Jianisejia)) was an emperor of the Kushan dynasty (127–151 AD).... personally seems to have embraced both Buddhism and the Persian cult of Mithra...in Zoroastrian/Iranian tradition, Mithra became the divinity of the Sun. How, when or why this occurred is uncertain, but is commonly attributed to a conflation with Babylonian Shamash, who – in addition to being a Sun god – was a judicial figure like Mithra. In the Hellenistic era (i.e., in Seleucid and Parthian times), Mithra also seems to have been conflated with Apollo, (god of light and the sun) who – like Mithra – was an all-seeing divinity of the truth.." ...http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanishka
"As the first Kulika king, Manjushrikirti, preached the Kalachakra Tantra to his subjects, Suryaratha distanced himself from it, and his followers, the Rishis, joined him. They preferred to choose banishment from Shambhala than to follow the “diamond path” (Vajrayana). Nonetheless, after they had set out in the direction of India and had already crossed the border of the kingdom, Manjushrikirti sank in to a deep meditation, stunned the emigrants by magic and ordered demon birds to bring them back. This event probably concerns a confrontation between two religious schools. The Rishis worshipped only the sun. For this reason they also called their guru the “sun chariot” (suryaratha). But the Kulika king had as Kalachakra master and cosmic androgyne united both heavenly orbs in himself. He was the master of sun and moon. His demand of the Rishis that they adopt the teachings of the Kalachakra Tantra was also enacted on a night of the full moon. Manjushrikirti ended his sermon with the words: “If you wish to enter that path, stay here, but if you do not, then leave and go elsewhere; otherwise the doctrines of the barbarians will come to spread even in Shambhala.” (Bernbaum, 1980, p. 234)......The Rishis decided upon the latter. “Since we all want to remain true to the sun chariot, we also do not wish to give up our religion and to join another”, they rejoined (Grünwedel, 1915, p. 77)
"Manjushrí Kírti (Tib. Rigdan Jampel Dakpa) is said to have been born in 159 BCE and ruled over Shambhala which had 300,510 followers of the Mlechha (Yavana or "western") religion living in it, some of whom worshiped the sun. He is said to have expelled all the heretics from his dominions but later, after hearing their petitions, allowed them to return. For their benefit, and the benefit of all living beings, he explained the Kalachakra teachings."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalachakra
"The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to the Suryvansha dynasty. This clan was the oldest and biggest Kshatriya clan of India, which was also known by many synonyms as Ādityavanśa (आदित्यवंश), Mitravanśa (मित्रवंश), Arkavanśa (अर्कवंश) and Ravivanśa (रविवंश). The early Suryavanshis considered the sun god (Surya, Aditya or Arka) as their kuladevata and mainly practised sun-worship".....
SHAMBA......."there are known to have been other famous temples dedicated to the sun called shams or shamba (a) in Balkh, the ancient capital of the Bactrian kingdom in northern Afghanistan, and in Multan which according to Alberuni used to be called Shambha-pura (City of the Vision of the Sun) in the pre-Islamic period. In Multan, the great annual festival of the year was celebrated in honour of the sun and there are descriptions of the golden idol representing the sun to support this identification. Though the temple was destroyed after Alberuni saw it, the sun god Surya in Multan (as in many other Indian temples) is described as wearing "northern" (central Asian) nomadic dress, including in this case red leather boots, though leather is anathema in Hindu temples. Trade routes to Tibet ran through both Multan and Balkh, so the name shams or shambha could as easily have been carried to Tibet as the dress from north of the Himalayas to Multan.,".....http://www.chronicleproject.com/james_george_searching_for_shambhala.html
"If then we see a Middle Eastern derivation in the name Shambhala, it would mean "light of the sun" or "vision of the sun." Alternatively, if we spell the word Shambala (as it was spelled in most of the early European references to it), this would mean "the sun above" (from the Persian bala "above"; as in Bala Missar, the fort above Kabul, and many other similar names). Shambhala would then mean "the supernal sun", not merely the ordinary visible sun but the principle of light itself, as coming from the transcendent sun, the source of all light."......http://www.chronicleproject.com/james_george_searching_for_shambhala.html
*Seh2ul with a genitive form *Sh2-en-s, Sun, appears as Sanskrit Surya, Avestan Hvara; Greek Helios, Latin Sol, Germanic ....*Sowilo (Old Norse Sól; Old English Sigel and Sunna, modern English Sun), Lithuanian Saulė, Latvian Saule; Albanian Diell.
......Related to the dragon-slaying myth is the "Sun in the rock" myth, of a heroic warrior deity splitting a rock where the Sun or Dawn was imprisoned. Such a myth is preserved in Rigvedic Vala, where Ushas and the cows, stolen by the Panis were imprisoned, connected with other myths of abductions into the netherworld such as the mysteries of Eleusis connected with Persephone, Dionysus and Triptolemus......The Sun was represented as riding in a chariot.
"Shams is the Arabic word for "sun" (شمس). The word has roots that go back to at least the time of the writing of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which references the Akkadian deity called Shamash"......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shams
CYBELE plate.....Plate found at Ai Khanum, northern Afghanistan,, in a temple, depicting Cybele, a votive sacrifice and the sun God.....
During the Roman Empire, a festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated on the winter solstice — the "rebirth" of the sun.
During the later periods of Roman history, sun worship gained in importance and ultimately led to what has been called a “solar monotheism.” Nearly all the gods of the period were possessed of solar qualities. The feast of Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) on 25 December was celebrated with great joy, and eventually this date was taken over by the Christians as Christmas, the celebrated birthday of Christ.
"Amenhotep IV initially introduced Atenism in Year 5 of his reign (1348/1346 BC), raising the Aten to the status of supreme god, after initially permitting the continued worship of the traditional gods...The Aten—the god of Atenism—first appears in texts dating to the 12th dynasty, in the Story of Sinuhe... In the eighteenth dynasty, Akhenaten changed the polytheistic religion of Egypt to a monotheistic one, Atenism of the solar-disk and is the first recorded state monotheism. All other deities were replaced by the Aten, including Amun-Ra, the reigning sun god of Akhenaten's own region. Unlike other deities, the Aten did not have multiple forms. His only image was a disk—a symbol of the sun."
"In Buddhist cosmology, the bodhisattva of the Sun is known as Ri Gong Ri Guang Pu Sa (The Bright Solar Bodhisattva of the Solar Palace) / Ri Gong Ri Guang Tian Zi (The Bright Solar Prince of the Solar Palace) / Ri Gong Ri Guang Zun Tian Pu Sa (The Greatly Revered Bright Solar Prince of the Solar Palace / one of the 20 or 24 guardian devas). In Sanskrit, He is known as Suryaprabha. He is usually depicted with Yue Gong Yue Guang Pu Sa (The Bright Lunar Bodhisattva of the Lunar Palace) / Yue Gong Yue Guang Tian Zi ( The Bright Lunar Prince of the Lunar Palace) / Yue Gong Yue Guang Zun Tian Pu Sa (The Greatly Revered Bright Lunar Prince of the Lunar Palace / one of the 20 or 24 guardian devas known as Candraprabha in Sanskrit. With Yao Shi Fo / Bhaisajyaguru Buddha (Medicine Buddha), these two bodhisattvas create the Dong Fang San Sheng or the Three Holy Sages of the East."
Amaterasu (天照?), Amaterasu-ōmikami (天照大神／天照大御神?) or Ōhirume-no-muchi-no-kami (大日孁貴神?) is a part of the Japanese myth cycle and also a major deity of the Shinto religion. She is the goddess of the sun, but also of the universe. The name Amaterasu derived from Amateru meaning "shining in heaven." The meaning of her whole name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august kami (Gama or God) who shines in the heaven".] The Emperor of Japan is said to be a direct descendant of Amaterasu.
"The sun god in Hinduism is an ancient and revered deity. In later Hindu usage, all the Vedic Ādityas lost identity and metamorphosed into one composite deity, Surya, the Sun.
"Iranian background.....The male sun had always been associated with Persian royalty: Iranian tradition recalls that Kayanids had a golden sun as their emblem. From the Greek historians of classical antiquity it is known that a crystal image of the sun adorned the royal tent of Darius III, that the Arsacid banner was adorned with the sun, and that the Sassanid standards had a red ball symbolizing the sun. The Byzantine chronicler Malalas records that the salutation of a letter from the "Persian king, the Sun of the East," was addressed to the "Roman Caesar, the Moon of the West". The Turanian king Afrasiab is recalled as saying: "I have heard from wise men that when the Moon of the Turan rises up it will be harmed by the Sun of the Iranians." The sun was always imagined as male, and in some banners a figure of a male replaces the symbol of the sun. In others, a male figure accompanies the sun."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion_and_Sun#Iranian_background
Sanskrit akṣatra, ruling; one of the ruling order member of the Kṣhatriya caste is the derivation for Old Persian xšaθra ("realm, power"), xšaθrya ("royal"), and xšāyaθiya ("emperor") are related to it, as are the New Persian words šāh ("emperor") and šahr ("city", "realm"). Thai: กษัตริย์ (kasat), "king" or "monarch," and similar-sounding Malay kesatria or satria, "knight" or "warrior", are also derived from it. The term may also denote aristocratic status.
The major branches of Kshatriya varna are: Suryavanshi (solar line, Sun Dynasty), claiming direct descent from Ramachandra, and descent from Surya; Chandravanshi (lunar line), claiming descent from Yadu, as Yadu was himself born in a Chandravanshi dynasty, and descent from Chandra; Agnivanshi, claiming descent from Agni; and Nagavanshi, claiming descent from the Nāgas.
Sun temples....."There are Surya temples all across India where Ratha Sapthami is fervently celebrated. However, the most famous one is the World Heritage Site of the Konarak Sun Temple, in Konark, Orissa. Besides Konark, there is another sun temple in Orissa, the Biranchi Narayan Temple (Biranchi khetra) in Buguda, Ganjam District. There are sun temples in Modhera, Gujarat, created by king Bhimdev of the Solanki dynasty, in Arasavalli, Andhra Pradesh and in clusters of Navagraha temples in Tamil Nadu and Assam. The Sun Temple at Martand (Jammu and Kashmir) and Sun Temple of Multan are temples, which were destroyed during Muslim conflicts in the past."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratha_Saptami
Multan is one of the oldest cities not only in the Asian subcontinent but also in the world.....the current name is derived from the Sanskrit name Mulasthana named after a Sun Temple.Multan has frequently been a site of conflict due to its location on a major invasion route between South Asia and Central Asia. It was conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BC. In the mid-5th century BC, the city was attacked by a group of Huna Hephthalite nomads led by Toramana.....Sun Temple of Multan also known as Aditya Sun Temple was an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Surya also called Aditya.....This Sun Temple has been mentioned also by Greek Admiral Skylax, who passed through this area in 515 B.C. The Multan and its temple are also earlier known as Kashya-papura is mentioned by Herodotus......Huen Tsang is said to have visited this temple in 641 AD and had described the deity made of pure gold and eyes of whom were made of large red rubies. The gold, silver and gems were abundantly used in doors, pillars and shikhara of temple. Thousands of Hindus regularly went to Multan to worship Sun God. He is also said to have seen several dancing girls (devadasis) in the temple.He further mentions the deities of Shiva and Buddha were also installed in the temple. Even after conquest of Multan by Umayyad Caliphate in 8th Century AD, under Muhammad bin Qasim, the Sun Temple was left intact, as it was a source of great income.Al-Baruni, who also visited Multan in 10th Century AD has also left glowing description of it. However, the temple is said to have been finally destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 AD.....The city of Multan may get its name from the Sanskrit name Mulasthana named after location of this Sun Temple.The exact site of Sun Temple of Multan is, however, unknown and subject of debate for researchers."....Sun-worship in ancient India. 1971. pp. 172.......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Temple_of_Multan
"Martand Sun Temple was dedicated to Surya(Sun-god) is now in ruins and the original site of temple is located near Anantnag in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Martand is another name for Hindu Sun-god in Sanskrit......The Martand Sun Temple was built by King of Karkota Dynasty - Lalitaditya Muktapida in 8th century AD. It is said to have been built during 725-756 AD. The foundation of the temple is said to have been around 370-500 AD., and also some attributed the construction of the temple began with Ranaditya.....The temple was built on top of a plateau from where one can view whole of Kashmir Valley. From the ruins and archeological findings, one can say it was an excellent specimen of Kashmir style of architecture, which had blended the Gandharan, Gupta, Chinese, Roman, Syrian-Byzantine and Greek forms of architecture. This beautiful Martand temple has a colonnaded courtyard, with the shrine in its center, which is 220 feet long and 142 feet broad. It was surrounded by 84 small shrines......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martand_Sun_Temple
"Shamash (Akkadian Šamaš "Sun") was a native Mesopotamian deity and the sun god in the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian pantheons. Shamash was the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. Akkadian šamaš is cognate to Syriac šemša or šimšu Hebrew שֶׁמֶשׁ šemeš and Arabic شمس šams...... the moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier stage of civilization, whereas the sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached......The two chief centres of sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippar, represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah. At both places the chief sanctuary bore the name E-barra (or E-babbara) "the shining house"—a direct allusion to the brilliancy of the sun-god. Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres – such as Babylon, Ur, Mari, Nippur, and Nineveh......Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BCE) declared that he rendered decisions "according to the just laws of Shamash.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash
"According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began in 3102 BCE.....The Surya Siddhanta is one of the earliest doctrine or tradition (siddhanta) in archeo-astronomy of the Hindus. Its original version is by an unknown author. It describes the archeo-astronomy theories, principles and methods of the ancient Hindus. This siddhanta is supposed to be the knowledge that the Sun god gave to an Asura called Maya. Asuras were enemies of the Deva, the Gods of Hindus. Asuras were believed to be residents of the nether worlds.....
"....the Sun in the Rig Veda as the Divine Eye of the Gods: "Known to all mortals, the beneficient Sun, who is universal-eyed, ascends upwards - the deity who is the Eye of Mitra and Varuna, who rolled up the darkness like a bit of leather." - Rig Veda. VII.63.1.....Creative Sun, the God, has sent his immortal light upwards, for all mortals. Through the intellectual power of the Gods, that Eye was first created. The Dawn-Goddess has revealed the Universe." - Rig Veda.VII.76.1.....eight points of the Earth, has his effulgence illuminated - the three measures of the deserts and the Seven Seas. The Shining Savitar with Golden-eyes, has come here, giving gems to his worshippers." - Rig Veda.I.35.8......."The Golden-handed creative Sun, far-sighted, goes on his way, through the regions of Heaven and Earth, driving away sickness, may the Sun approach us, and spread brightness through the region of darkness. May he, the Golden-handed Asura, the gentle leader, come to us with his help and favor. Driving off the demons and the sorcerers, the Shining One is present, reverenced in hymns at the evening." - Rig Veda.I.35.9-10......".....http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv01035.htm
.."He, strong of wing, hath lightened up the regions, deep-quivering Asura, the gentle Leader. Where now is Sūrya, where is one to tell us to what celestial sphere his ray hath wandered? ...The earth's eight points his brightness hath illumined, three desert regions and the Seven Rivers. God Savitar the gold-eyed hath come hither, giving choice treasures unto him who worships. ...The golden-handed Savitar, far-seeing, goes on his way between the earth and heaven, Drives away sickness, bids the Sun approach us, and spreads the bright sky through the darksome region. ...May he, gold-handed Asura, kind Leader, come hither to us with his help and favour. Driving off Rākṣasas and Yātudhānas, the God is present, praised in hymns at evening. ...O Savitar, thine ancient dustless pathways are well established in the air's mid-region..."....http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/rigveda/rv01035.htm
Konark Sun Temple is a 13th century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. The temple is one of the most renowned temples in India and is a World Heritage Site. It is one of the Seven Wonders of India. Legend has it that the temple was constructed by Samba, the son of Lord Krishna. It is said that Samba was afflicted by leprosy, brought about by his father’s curse on him. After 12 years of penance, he was cured by Surya, the Sun God, in whose honour he built the magnificent Konark Sun Temple......The name Konark is derived from the Sanskrit word Kona (meaning angle) and word Arka (meaning sun) in reference to the temple which was dedicated to the Sun god Surya..... At the entrance of the temple is a Nata mandir. This is where the temple dancers used to perform dances in homage to the Sun God.....The temple is famous for its erotic sculptures....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konark_Sun_Temple
"Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य Sūrya, "the Supreme Light") Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism. The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya is the chief of the Navagraha, Indian "Classical planets" and important elements of Hindu astrology. He is often depicted riding a chariot harnessed by seven horses or one horse with seven heads, which represent the seven colours of the rainbow or the seven chakras. He also presides over Sunday. Surya is regarded as the Supreme Deity by Saura sect, which is now a very small following. Smartas worship him as the five primary forms of God. Surya as the Sun is worshipped at dawn by most Hindus and has many temples dedicated to him across India.....'Surya' is also known as 'Mitra' (meaning friend) for his life nourishing properties. Mitra form of 'Surya' had been worshiped mostly in Gujarat, where a clan of Suryawanshi kings was known as Mitrawanshi kshatriyas.....In the Vedas, Surya is frequently referred to as "the eye of Mitra, Varuna, and Agni" (RV 1.115.1, RV 6.51.1, RV 7.63.1, WYV 4.35, WYV 7.42, WYV 13.46, AV 13.2.35). This bears striking similarities to Zoroastrian scriptures, where the Sun is described as "the eye of Ahura Mazda".......Gurjars claim descent from Suryavanshi Kshatriyas (Sun Dynasty) and connect themselves with the Hindu deity Rama. Historically, the Gurjars were Sun-worshipers and are described as devoted to the feet of the Sun-god (God Surya).Their copper-plate grants bear an emblem of the Sun and on their seals too, this symbol is depicted. Also the Gurjar title of honor is Mihir which means Sun....Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gurjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns").....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurjar
"Mahabharata.......Drona stages a tournament to display all the Pandavas' skills, but a stranger appears who challenges Arjuna and equals him in archery. This is Karna, who the reader learns is Kunti's first son by Surya the sun god, whom she bore before she married Pandu and abandoned in a basket on the river (like Moses). Thus Karna is the older brother of the Pandavas. However, Karna does not know his real mother, being raised by a chariot driver. The Pandavas mock his lowly social status and will not fight with someone who is not of royal birth, but their cousin Duryodhana sees the chance to make an ally. Ignoring the strict rules of caste, he says, “Birth is obscure and men are like rivers whose origins are often unknown” (play). Duryodhana gives Karna a small kingdom, and Karna swears eternal friendship to the Kauravas......As the child of the sun, Karna was born with golden armor over his skin. Later, the god Indra tricks Karna into giving this divine protection away.".. ..http://larryavisbrown.homestead.com/files/xeno.mahabsynop.htm
John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….February 2013