"Firdausī's great epic poem, the Shāhnāma, begins with the story of Keyumars. He was the first king to arise among humans, who at that time lived in mountain caves and wore the skins of leopards. God (Ahura Mazda) granted him the supernatural radiance called farr (Avestan xvarənah), reserved to kings......
"The word Shah..... derives from the Old Iranian, Avestan xšaΘra, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit (Ancient Indian) kshatriya, "warrior". The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was XšāyaΘiya XšāyaΘiyānām, "King of Kings"."......Satrap, the term in Western languages for a governor of a Persian province, is a distortion of xšaθrapāvan, literally "guardian of the realm", which derives from the word xšaθra, an Old Persian word meaning "realm, province" and related etymologically to shah."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shah
Keyumars......Kiumars, Gayō Marətan, (Gayōmard or Gayōmart in later Zoroastrian texts) is the Avestan name of the mythological first Man in Old Iranian culture. The corresponding name in Middle Persian is Kayōmart....Modern Persian Keyumars....In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh he appears as the first shāh of the world. He is also called the pishdād (پيشداد) thus the first man who practiced justice, the lawgiver.....The original Avestan name translates to "mortal life", from gaya "life" and marətan "mortal" (or "human"; cf. Persian mard مَرد "man"). The name literally means "The mortal alive being".
"In the eighth book of Denkard, a reference is made to the Chethrdāt-nask which was one of the 21 Nasks of the Avesta. Apparently this part of Avesta dealt with how the world and mankind were created, including the creation of Gayōmart. .....Gayōmart Gar-shāh (King of the Mountains) was the first human Uhrmazd created. Before Gayōmart came, in the fifth 'Gāh' (Ahura Mazda created the world in six Gāhs) Gavevagdāt was created from mud in Erān-vēdj(which was the middle of the earth) on the right side of the river 'Veh-Dāit' ... In the sixth 'Gāh' Gayōmart was created from mud ... on the left side of 'Veh-Dāit', to help Uhrmazd and he was created as a 15 year old boy. ".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyumars
GAYŌMART (Gayūmarṯ, Kayūmarṯ; Mid. Pers. Gayōmart/d, Av. gaya marətan “mortal life,” Man. Gehmurd; Ar. Jayūmart), the sixth of the heptad in Mazdean myth of creation, the protoplast of man, and the first king in Iranian mythical history. The particulars of Gayōmart’s life and death are given somehow differently in Middle Persian books.....In the Bundahišn..... he was created in Ērān-wēz (q.v.), in the middle of the world, on the left bank of the river Good Dāitī (see DAĪTYĀ)."....http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/gayomart-
DĀITYĀ, (VAŊHVĪ) (lit., “the (good) Dāityā”; Mid. Pers. Weh Dāitī),.....river connected with the religious law, frequently identified in scholarly literature with the Oxus.....According to the Avesta, the Dāityā river was to be venerated (Yt. 1.21). On its banks Zairi.vari offered a sacrifice to Anāhitā (Yt. 5.112; see anāhīd) and Vīštāspa to both Anāhitā (Yt. 9.29) and Aši (q.v.; Yt. 17.61). Zoroaster himself honored “the good waters of the good Dāityā” (Vd. 19.2). ....http://www.iranicaonline.org
"Gayō Marətan (or Gayōmard or Gayōmart in later Zoroastrian texts) is the Avestan name of the mythological first Man in Old Iranian culture. The corresponding name in Middle Persian is Kayōmart > Modern Persian Keyumars ."......http://en.inforapid.org/index.php?search=Keyumars
Gar-shāh: Avesta: King of the Mountains
Qeysar (Persian: قیصر, "Caesar"), also written as Gheisar, Kaiser and Gheysar, Ghaysar,
Old English: cāsere
Persian: Ghaysar قيصر
743 AD...."....the supremacy of the Umayyad caliph al-Mahdi and the true conquest of Kabul did not take place until the end of the ninth century. ......An important recent discovery has provided a surprising insight into the events of this epoch. On the coins of some Arab governors, a Bactrian text overstruck on the rim has been discovered...... The reading of the text is as follows: (ppofio Kijaapo fiayo xoaSr/o klSo /So xaz iicavo /opyo o<5o crao /3o oa/3ayo aro i /xo /Jo yaivSo ( Fromo Kesaro, the Majestic Sovereign [is] who defeated the Arabs and laid a tax [on them]. Thus they sent it.)...... These coins formed part of the tax paid by the Arabs to Fromo Kesaro and were over- struck with a legend telling of his victory over them. Obviously, this event occurred during the reign of Fromo Kesaro (739-746) and may have contributed to his transformation in later historical tradition 44 into the Tibetan national hero Phrom Ge-sar, whose figure still survives today in the folklore of the territory of ancient Gandhara."...... HistoryOfCivilizationsOfCentralAsia
John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….June 2013