Roxana (Avestan: Raoxshna or Roshanak, "luminous beauty"; Persian: رخسانه Rokhsāna; Pashto: روښانه Rox̌āna), sometimes Roxanne, Roxandra and Roxane, was a Bactrian (Iran) princess and a wife of Alexander the Great. She was born earlier than the year 343 BC.
"Balkh is a large and magnificent city. It was here that Alexander married the daughter of Darius." (Marco Polo in Waugh: 1984..pg 42)
Roxana was the daughter of a Bactrian named Oxyartes of Balkh in Bactria (around modern-day Balkh province of Afghanistan), and married Alexander at the age of 16 after he visited the fortress of Sogdian Rock. Balkh was the last of the Persian Empire's provinces to fall to Alexander. Ancient sources describe Alexander's professed love for Roxana. She accompanied him on his campaign in northern India in 326 BC.
After Alexander's sudden death at Babylon in 323 BC, she bore him a posthumous son called Alexander IV Aegus. Also, after Alexander's death, Roxana murdered Alexander's other widow, Stateira II, as well as either Stateira's sister Drypteis or Parysatis II (Alexander's third wife). Roxana and her son were protected by Alexander's mother, Olympias, in Macedonia, but her assassination in 316 BC allowed Cassander to seek kingship. Since Alexander IV Aegus was the legitimate heir to the Alexandrian empire, Cassander ordered him and Roxana assassinated about 310 BC.
HOS-ZA-RGYAL-MYED (Hoza Gyelmed:wife of Shenrab Miwo): "hair like the petals of the Utpala flower, eyes like the fruit of the indigo, brow is of the greatest serenity and full like the moon, eyebrows of wide arch and like the letter o, cheeks are of clear color and like blood-red rubies in a cup of ivory, nose of good fashion, whose speaking mouth is like the mountains of gold encircling the Sumeru, teeth beautiful and smiling like the pinnacles of the mountains of the gods, speaking tongue is like the lightning in the atmosphere, whose body is like a precious vessel, clear and glorious as precious stone." (Francke:1950..pg 164)... Shenrab had six wives....Hoz bza rgyal med....dPo bza thang mo...gSas bza ngan ring...Phywa bza gung drug...Kong bza khri icam...and....rgya bza phrul bsgyur...(karmay: 1972..pg 3)...
Oxyartes was a Bactrian, father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander of Macedon. He is first mentioned as one of the chiefs who accompanied Bessus on his retreat across the Oxus river into Sogdiana (329 BC). After the death of Bessus, Oxyartes deposited his wife and daughters for safety in a rock fortress in Sogdiana, which was deemed impregnable, but which nevertheless soon fell into the hands of Alexander, who not only treated his captives with respect and attention, but was so charmed with the beauty of Roxana as to design to make her his wife. Oxyartes, on learning these tidings, is said to have hastened to make his submission to the conqueror, by whom he was received with the utmost distinction; and celebrated by a magnificent feast the nuptials of his daughter with the king, 327 BC.Shortly after we find him successfully interposing to prevail upon Chorienes to surrender his rock fortress; and at a subsequent period he was appointed by Alexander satrap of the province of Paropamisadae, in India. In this position he continued until the death of Alexander (323 BC), and was confirmed in his government, both in the first division of the provinces immediately after that event, and in the subsequent one at Triparadisus, 321 BC. At a later period we find him sending a small force to the support of Eumenes; but after the death of that general, 316 BC, he seems to have come to terms with Antigonus, who was content to assume the appearance of confirming him in an authority of which he would have found it difficult to dispossess him. It seems probable that he must have died before the expedition of Seleucus against India, as we find that monarch ceding Paropamisus to Chandragupta Maurya, without any mention of Oxyartes.
Kurgans...."Females were buried in about 20% of graves of the lower and middle Volga river region during the Yamna and Poltavka cultures. Two thousand years later, females dressed as warriors were buried in the same region. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian-Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lower Volga contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons." A near-equal ratio of male-to-female graves was found in the eastern Manych steppes and Kuban-Azov steppes during the Yamna culture. In Ukraine, the ratio was intermediate between the other two regions.".....Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05887-3.
STRITAJYA.. (Suvarnagotra)(Sauromatae)..The Land of Women....An area that Alexander the Great was not able to conquer...(Stein:1972..pg 34) An interesting Kingdom of women warriors northwest of Shang Shung.....See Hermann: An Historical Atlas of China: 1966...
"The country referred to about the ant's gold and the Amazons whom Alexander was not able to conquer." (Stein: 1972..pg 35)....
"Alexander met with Thalestris, Queen of the Amazons in Parthia in 330 BC (Near the Caspian Sea). She arrived with 300 women warriors in full armour, equipped as horse warriors. She told him she wanted a child by him. He spent 13 days with her.She died soon afterwards and with her disappeared the name of the Amazons." (Newark: Women Warriors..1989)...The story is rejected by modern scholars as legendary. Perhaps behind the legend lies the offering by a Scythian king of his daughter as a wife for Alexander, as the latter himself wrote in a letter to Antipater.
"Women warriors were quite eviden in the Massagetae of 500 BC. Herodotus reported: 'the women ride hunting and to war and dress the same as men'. In the reign of the Median King Astibar there was a war between the Sacae and the Medes. The leader of the Sacae was called Zarina, a female warrior. When Amorg, a later king of the Saccae was captured by Cyrus of Persia, his wife Sparetra gathered an army of 300,000 men and 200,000 women. According to Herodotus, when the Persians went to war with the Massagetae, the leader of the latter was Tomyris, widow of their king." (Rudenko: 1970..pg 212)...
The earliest known undisputed burial of a shaman[clarification needed] dates back to the early Upper Paleolithic era (c. 30,000 BC) in the area of the present-day Czech Republic. However, it was probably more common during the early Upper Paleolithic for religious ceremonies to receive equal and full participation from all members of the band in contrast to the religious traditions of later periods when religious authorities and part-time ritual specialists such as shamans, priests and medicine men were relatively common and integral to religious life. The earliest known Paleolithic shaman (c.30,000 BC) was female.(?) Additionally it is also possible that Upper Paleolithic religions - like contemporary and historical animistic and polytheistic religions - believed in the existence of a single creator deity in addition to other supernatural beings such as animistic spirits.
Tedlock, Barbara. 2005. The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York: Bantam.....A distinguished anthropologist–who is also an initiated shaman–reveals the long-hidden female roots of the world’s oldest form of religion and medicine. Here is a fascinating expedition into this ancient tradition, from its prehistoric beginnings to the work of women shamans across the globe today. Shamanism was not only humankind’s first spiritual and healing practice, it was originally the domain of women. This is the claim of Barbara Tedlock’s provocative and myth-shattering book. Reinterpreting generations of scholarship, Tedlock–herself an expert in dreamwork, divination, and healing–explains how and why the role of women in shamanism was misinterpreted and suppressed, and offers a dazzling array of evidence, from prehistoric African rock art to modern Mongolian ceremonies, for women’s shamanic powers.
Pre-Historic Religion was often apotropaic; specifically, it involved sympathetic magic. The Venus figurines - which occur abundantly in the Upper Paleolithic archeological record - provide an example of Paleolithic sympathetic magic: people may have used them for ensuring success in hunting and to bring about fertility of the land and women. Scholars have sometimes explained the Upper Paleolithic Venus figurines as depictions of an earth goddess similar to Gaia or as representations of a goddess who is the ruler or mother of the animals. James Harrod has described them as representative of female (and male) shamanistic spiritual transformation processes.
Four of the 84 Mahasiddhas are women....
Manibhadra, the Perfect Wife
Lakshmincara, The Princess of Crazy wisdom
Mekhala, the elder of the 2 Headless Sisters
Kanakhala, the younger of the 2 Headless Sisters
"The notable female rishikas who contributed to the composition of the Vedic scriptures are: The Rig Veda mentions Romasha, Lopamudra, Apala, Kadru, Visvavara, Ghosha, Juhu, Vagambhrini, Paulomi, Yami, Indrani, Savitri, and Devajami. The Sama Veda adds Nodha, Akrishtabhasha, Sikatanivavari and Gaupayana.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rishi
Olmolungring....."To the east of the mountain is the shining white temple of Shampo Lhatse (sham-po lha rtse). To the south is the great palace of Barpo Sogyad (bar-po so-brgyad) where Tönpa Shenrab`s had lived and he was born. To the west is the palace of Trimön Gyalzhad (khri-smon rgyal-bzhad), where the chief queen of Tönpa Shenrab, Hoza Gyalzhadma (Hos-bza` rGyal-bzhad-ma) had lived and where three of his children were born, namely, Tobu (gTo-bu), Chyadbu (dPyad-bu), and Ne`u-chen. And to the north is the palace of Khong-ma Ne`u-chung where another one of his queens, Poza Thangmo (dPo-bza` thang-mo) lived and three more of his children were born, namely, Lungdren (Lung-`dren), Gyuddren (rGyud-`dren), and Ne`u-chung."......http://bonchildren.tonkoblako-9.net/en/jewel2/03.tan
"If a Hopi woman wishes to terminate her marriage she places the personal belongings of her husband outside the door of their home. The house and all the household equipment are the property of the Hopi wife.".....http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/hopi/toah/toah24.htm
Northern New Mexico….November 2013