"Suvarnadvipa (Skt. Suvarṇadvīpa; Tib. གསེར་གླིང་, Wyl. gser gling) .......
"... the Dharma Fellowship of His Holiness Gyalwa Karmapa holds that the 'Five Peaked Mountain' of "the Land of Cina" is a mountain near the Kinnaur Valley associated with the historical Suvarnadwipa (Sanskrit) nation also known as 'Zhang-zhung' ....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seventeen_tantras
"Sri Simha, or Simhaprabha as he may have been known, was born in a noble family in the "Land of Cina" near the Kinnaur Valley.......even Dudjom Rinpoche's The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism perpetuates the error of stating that Sri Simha came from China. Evans-Wentz, just as incorrectly, described Sri Simha as a Burmese guru. Dr. Hanson-Barber places Sri Simha in Central Asia, while Dowman has suggested that he was Khotanese. Tulku Thondup, author of Masters of Meditation and Miracles, describes Sri Simha birthplace as "a city called Shokyam on Sosha Island in China." None of these allocations are correct. To fully appreciate Sri Simha's background we must briefly digress into the geography of a mysterious seventh century Himalayan country called Suvarnadwipa and its southern neighbour, the Kinnaur Valley."....http://www.ogyenling.com/Lineage.aspx
"To fully appreciate Sri Simha's background we must briefly digress into the geography of a mysterious seventh century Himalayan country called Suvarnadwipa and its southern neighbour, the Kinnaur Valley."......The Dharma Fellowship of His Holiness the 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje (1923-1981)
It should be mentioned here that the Dharma Fellowship (2009) drawing on the work of Lalou (1890–1967) holds the 'Five Peaked Mountain' of "the Land of Cina" (where Cina isn't China but a term for the textile cashmere) the Five Peaked Mountain which Kunsang and others have attributed to Mount Wutai in China is instead a mountain near the Kinnaur Valley associated with the historical Suvarnadwipa (Sanskrit) nation also known as 'Zhang-zhung' in the Zhang-zhung language and the Tibetan language."....Dharma Fellowship of His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa
“Atisha is the teacher who brought the Mind Training teaching to Tibet. He was born in India in A.D 982. He was first initiated into, and became an adept in, the esoteric and magical practices of Tantra, which were very popular in India at the time, and in fact were to soon to absorb and extinguish Indian Buddhism. However, when already a well-established practitioner of Tantra, he underwent a change of heart and made a decision to renounce the search for magical power. Wishing to develop compassion and selflessness, at the age of thirty he took Buddhist vows. Wishing to study with the master of compassion Dharmakirti (Tibetan: Serlingpa), he traveled to the faraway land of Suvarnadvipa.... He stayed there for twelve years, learning, among many other things, the Mind Training practice. Such was Atisha's gratitude to Dharmakirti that he was unable even to hear his name without bursting into tears. On his return to India, Atisha taught for fifteen years at different monasteries and was recognized as both the most learned and the most personally realized teacher in all India.”…….from Atisha and Tibet,by Alaka Chattopadhaya. ….http://lojongmindtraining.com/
“Tonglen (Tibetan: གཏོང་ལེན་, Wylie: gtong len, or tonglin) is Tibetan for 'giving and taking' (or sending and receiving), and refers to a meditation practice found in Tibetan Buddhism…..
“Atisha Dipankara Shrijnana, born in 982 CE.……one of Atisha's slogans from the 'Seven points of Mind-training'. The practice begins by inhaling your own conflicting emotions, your own negative karma, and your own difficulties. A moment of transformation. Then exhale, as you visualise all this negativity riding out as a breath stream of happiness and joy.”…..http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com
“Lojong mind training practice was developed over a 300-year period between 900 and 1200 CE, as part of the Mahāyāna school of Buddhism. Atiśa (982–1054 CE), is generally regarded as the originator of the practice. It is described in his book Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment (Bodhipathapradīpaṃ). The practice is based upon his studies with the teacher, Dharmarakṣita, author of a text called the Wheel of Sharp Weapons. Both these texts are well known in Tibetan translation……Atiśa studied with Dharmarakṣita for twelve years. He then returned to teach in India, but at an advanced age accepted an invitation to teach in Tibet, where he stayed for the rest of his life.”…..Joyful Path of Good Fortune: The Complete Buddhist Path to Enlightenment, pages 6-14, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995)
“Dharmakīrti (ca. 7th century) also known as Serlingpa Dharmakīrti or Suvarnadvipi Dharmakīrti, was a Buddhist scholar of Suvarnadvipa. He was one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. He was one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism, according to which the only items considered to exist are momentary states of consciousness….he held the complete teachings on how to develop bodhichitta…..Born around the turn of the 7th century in Sumatra, Dharmakirti was a Srivijayan prince of Sailendra dynasty….There has long been disagreement among Indian and Tibetan doxographers as to how to categorise Dharmakirti's thought. The Gelug school asserts that he expressed Yogachara views, most non-Gelug Tibetan commentators assert that he expressed Sautrantika views and, according to one Tibetan source, a number of renowned later Indian Madhyamikas asserted that he expressed Madhyamaka views……
Atisa is a celebrated figure in the Tibetan Buddhism in tradition and in establishment. Atisa also invented bodhichitta or known as "mind training" that is practiced around the world today. Another important figure in Tibetan Buddhism is Tilopa who founded the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism and developed the Mahamudra method, a set of spiritual practices that greatly accelerated the process of attaining bodhi (enlightenment).
“The Dharmaguptakas made more efforts than any other sect to spread Buddhism outside India, to areas such as Iran, Central Asia, and China, and they had great success in doing so. …..Parthia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, Parthian: 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, Middle Persian, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire….Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao came to China and translated a work which described the color of monastic robes (Skt. kāṣāya) utitized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Da Biqiu Sanqian Weiyi (大比丘三千威儀).....
“Persians in East Asia By the late Sasanian period (224 to 651 AD) ….the Persians controlled the seas and came into conflict with the Romans…. it appears there was even a Sasanian colony in Malaysia…..….The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656) ended the Sassanid Empire”……http://www.iranchamber.com/history/articles/persian_gulf_trade_late_antiquity.php
"In 624 AD, a Moslem invasion weakened the Kingdom of Shambhala.”……(Roerich: 1974..pg 753) (Geoffrey Hopkins: 1985..pg 60)...