"Forgotten realms of the Oxus region.....The ancient cities and fortresses along the Oxus and nearby rivers........It's unknown exactly where antiquity-era Chorsamia was centred, although part of the ruins of Kyrk Molla at Gurganj date back to this period, as do part of the ruins of Itchan Kala in present-day Khiva (Khwarezm's capital). Probably the most impressive and best-preserved ancient ruins in the region, are those of the Ayaz Kala fortress complex, parts of which date back to the 4th century BC. There are numerous other "Kala" (the Chorasmian word for "fortress") nearby, including Toprak Kala and Kz'il Kala. "....http://greenash.net.au/thoughts/2014/10/forgotten-realms-of-the-oxus-region/
Ayaz Kala (fortress 2) of Khwarezm (Chorasmia), today desert but in ancient times green and lush....http://greenash.net.au/thoughts/2014/10/forgotten-realms-of-the-oxus-region/
"In classical antiquity, a number of advanced civilisations flourished in the area that today comprises parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan. Through this area runs a river most commonly known by its Persian name, as the Amu Darya. However, in antiquity it was known by its Greek name, as the Oxus....The Oxus region is home to archaeological relics of grand civilisations, most notably of ancient Bactria, but also of Chorasmia, Sogdiana, Margiana, and Hyrcania. However, most of these ruined sites enjoy far less fame, and are far less well-studied, than comparable relics in other parts of the world......most of the ruins have been neglected by the modern world – largely due to the region's turbulent history of late....."...http://greenash.net.au/thoughts/2014/10/forgotten-realms-of-the-oxus-region/
Overview map of the Oxus region, showing major rivers and antiquity-era archaeological sites..... Forgotten realms of the Oxus region......http://greenash.net.au/thoughts/2014/10/forgotten-realms-of-the-oxus-region/
"The Oxus is the largest river (by water volume) in Central Asia. Due to various geographical factors, it's also changed its course more times (and more dramatically) than any other river in the region, and perhaps in the world."
Faizabad Kala....(Fayzabad, Feyzabad, Fazelabad or Faizabad) (Pashto:فيض آباد), Persian: فيض آباد) is the provincial capital and largest city in Badakhshan Province, in northern Afghanistan, with around 50,000 people. It is situated in Fayzabad District and is at an altitude of 1,200 m. (3,937 ft.)....It is located in the northeast of Afghanistan, on the River Kokcha. It is the main commercial and administrative center of the Pamir region."
Kaakha fortress, overlooking the Panj river.....(Hava Afghanistan). ....http://greenash.net.au/thoughts/2014/10/forgotten-realms-of-the-oxus-region/
Settlements along the lower Uzboy part of Hyrcania (which was on occasion given a name of its own, Nesaia) were few. The most notable surviving ruin there is the Igdy Kala fortress, which dates to approximately the 4th century BCE, and which (arguably) exhibits both Parthian and Chorasmian influence. Very little is known about Igdy Kala, as the site has seldom been formally studied. The question of whether the full length of the Uzboy ever existed remains unresolved, particularly regarding the section from Sarykamysh Lake to Igdy Kala.
Aerial view of Koykrylgan Kala....Koykrylgan Kala (also spelt Qoy Qirilq'an Qala) is an amazing and enigmatic site. Its circular shape is unique. Koykrylgan Kala is a 4th century BC fortress, but what lay within the fortifications is a mystery. Today, the site lies in a remote part of the surrounding desert. In the 2nd century BC, the complex was destroyed by fire, was rebuilt and remained in use until the 4th century AD. "...http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/khvarizem/page4.htm
Map of Khairizem / Khvarizem/ Chorasmia Historical Sites...http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/khvarizem
John Hopkins....Northern New Mexico