Saturday, March 30, 2013

Chandragupta Maurya: 340-298 BC & Vahilka

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"Chandragupta Maurya (340 BC – 298 BC) was the founder of the Mauryan Empire and the first emperor to unify India into one state. He ruled from 322 BC until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favour of his son Bindusara in 298 BC......His empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, eastern and south-east Iran in the west, to Kashmir in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south...... He established a strong central administration patterned after that of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty....There was a growth in culture which derived its inspiration from the Achaemenids and the Hellenistic world.Chandragupta's reign was a time of great social and religious reform in India. The religious reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism became increasingly prominent......In foreign Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrokottos and Androcottus.....Taditionally, Chandragupta, who was a Hindu, was influenced to accept Jainism by the sage Bhadrabahu; his grandson, Ashoka, Chandragupta Maurya is one of the most celebrated rulers in the history of India.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya

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"The Buddhist text the Mahavamsa calls Chandragupt a member of a division of the Khattiya (Kshatriya) clan called the Moriya (Maurya). Divyāvadāna calls Bindusara, son of Chandragupt, an anointed Kshatriya, Kshatriya Murdhabhishikata, and in the same work King Ashoka, son of Bindusara, is also styled a Kshatriya. The Mahaparinibbana Sutta states that the Moriyas (Mauryas) belonged to the Kshatriya community of Pippalivana. These traditions indicate that Chandragupt came from a Kshatriya lineage. The Mahavamshatika connects him with the Shakya clan of the Buddha"......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya

Dawa Zangpo was the first of the seven "SHAKYA" kings of Shambhala.(Bryant:Wheel of Time Sand Mandala)...Sucandra died two years after receiving the Kalachakra teachings. The six religious Kings of Shambhala were descended from the Shakya clan......"The father of Sucandra was Shakya Shambha" (Bernbaum:1980..pg 285)......"King Dawa Zangpo (Sucandra) (Zla-ba bZang po) (Lord of Humanity)..(Kongtrul: 1995..pg 276)

"EASTERN BENGAL AND BALKH......It is almost certain that Chandragupta had other successful military operations to this credit the basis of refernces mentioned in Virasena's Udaygiri cave inscription that the king set out 'to conquer the whole world', and in Sanchi inscription in which one of Chandragupta's military officer is said to have obtained great glory by winning many battles. But we have no definite and detailed information regarding the nature and result of these campaigns......The military exploits of a king called Chandra are mentioned in Mahrauli iron Pillar inscription. It is stated in the inscription that the king defeated a confederacy of hostile chiefs in Vanga and having crossed in warfare the seven months of the river Sindhu, conquered the Vahilkas......Vanga denotes Eastern Bengal, verynearly the same country as Samatata which is included in the tributary frontier states of Samudragupta. It is possible that some of the rulers refused to accept Chandragupta's authority and consequently the latter had to fight against them. The compaign resulted in the inconporation of the province in the Gutpta empire......Vahilka, according to Dr.Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1888 – 1980), is almost certainly to be identified with Balkh (Bactria) beyond the Hindukush mountains. 'Here too,' the motive of the compaign was probably similar tothat against eastern Bengal, i.e. either the Kushans who referred to sas Daivaputra-Shahi - Shahanushani in Allahabad Pillar Inscription had acknowledged the supremacy of Samudragupta rebelled, or Chandragupta II wanted to establish his authorirty on a firmer basis'.....Samudragupta had begun the work of conquest. But it was his son who completed the task and kingdoms on the border but also the territories ruled by foreign hordes like the Sakas and Kushanas. Chadragupta too the title of Vikramaditya (Sun of power) and for this tilte he had a better claim than any other sovereign of northern India. That he was the real architect of the Gupta empire, there can be no two opinions......Chadragupta II ruled for nearly 35 years. And he was succeeded by Kumar Gupta -O in 415 A.D. He, too, ruled the empire for about 40 years. Details of his reign art not known."....http://www.civilserviceindia.com/

"A medieval inscription represents the Maurya clan as belonging to the solar race of Kshatriyas. It is stated that the Maurya line sprang from Suryavamsi Mandhatri, son of prince Yuvanashva of the solar race...In Hinduism, Ādityas (Sanskrit: आदित्य, pronounced [ɑːd̪it̪jɐ]), meaning "of Aditi", refers to the offspring of Aditi. In later Hinduism, Aditya is used in the singular to mean the sun...In the Rigveda, the Ādityas are the seven celestial deities, sons of Āditi, headed by Varuna, followed by Mitra (Vedic personification of Surya)...Aditya are the beneficent Gods who act as protectors of all beings, who are provident and guard the world of spirits and protect the world. In the form of Mitra-Varuna, the Adityas are true to the eternal Law..."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ādityas

"Fa-hein (337 – c. 422 CE) was the first of three great Chinese pilgrims who visited India from the fifth to the seventh centuries CE, in search of knowledge, manuscripts and relics. Faxian arrived during the reign of Chandragupta II and gave a general description of North India at that time. Among the other things, he reported about the absence of capital punishment, the lack of a poll-tax and land tax. Most citizens did not consume onions, garlic, meat, and wine......"....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_II

"the dynastic symbol of the Guptas (the mythic eagle Garuda)..."Chandragupta Vikramaditya, King of Kings, and a devotee of Vishnu", around Garuda, the mythic eagle and dynastic symbol of the Guptas..".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_II

"The military exploits of a king called Chandra are mentioned in Mahrauli iron Pillar inscription. It is stated in the inscription that the king defeated a confederacy of hostile chiefs in Vanga and having crossed in warfare the seven months of the river Sindhu, conquered the Vahilkas.....Vanga denotes Eastern Bengal, verynearly the same country as Samatata which is included in the tributary frontier states of Samudragupta. It is possible that some of the rulers refused to accept Chandragupta's authority and consequently the latter had to fight against them. The compaign resulted in the inconporation of the province in the Gutpta empire......Vahilka, according to Dr. R.C. Majumdar, is almost certainly to be identified with Balkh (Bactria) beyond the Hindukush mountains. ".....http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/History/prelims/gupta-age4.html

"Bakhdhi: [Bakhtri in old Persian and Bactaria Greek]. It is same as Iranian Balkh and Indian Vahilka. This is the region lying between the river Oxus and the Hindukush comprises Pauranic Ketumala Varsa. The town of Bactra (Balkh), for Iranians--the mother of cities, was situated on the river Oxus.".....http://www.jatland.com/home/General_History

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….March 2013

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