"Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh....c. 3150 BC beginning of the reign of Narmer, first pharaoh to unify Ancient Egypt and founder of the 1st Dynasty....Narmer was probably the successor to the Protodynastic pharaohs Scorpion and/or Ka.....mainstream Egyptological consensus identifies Narmer with the First Dynasty pharaoh Menes."....Edwards, IES (1971), "The early dynastic period in Egypt", The Cambridge Ancient History
"The Pamir Mountains near Balkh have been known since the earliest times, when first caravans went to ancient Egypt, bringing sky-colored lapis lazuli to the country. We are very limited on information about that time. But one thing is clear; the country was on the Great Silk Route for a long time. And huge ruins of old fortresses still remain silent about that time///Sar-i Sang lapis lazuli mine, probably dating from proto-historic times. It consists of one old disused shaft and two new shafts. This was the main source of lapis lazuli in the ancient world, with lapis from here occurring in such famous archaeological discoveries as the Royal Treasure of Ur (founded circa 3800 BC) and the Tomb of Tutankhamun (1323 BC)....."
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten..... The solar Aten was extensively worshipped as a god in the reign of Amenhotep III (1386-1349 BC) .....a pharaoh from the 18th Dynasty (1570-1293 BC)
Amenhotep IV initially introduced Atenism in Year 5 of his reign (1348/1346 BC), raising the Aten to the status of supreme god, after initially permitting the continued worship of the traditional gods...The Aten—the god of Atenism—first appears in texts dating to the 12th dynasty, in the Story of Sinuhe... In the eighteenth dynasty, Akhenaten changed the polytheistic religion of Egypt to a monotheistic one, Atenism of the solar-disk and is the first recorded state monotheism. All other deities were replaced by the Aten, including Amun-Ra, the reigning sun god of Akhenaten's own region. Unlike other deities, the Aten did not have multiple forms. His only image was a disk—a symbol of the sun.
"The Tale of Sinuhe is considered one of the finest works of Ancient Egyptian literature. It is a narrative set in the aftermath of the death of Pharaoh Amenemhat I, founder of the 12th dynasty of Egypt, in the early 20th century BC. It is likely that it was composed only shortly after this date, albeit the earliest extant manuscript is from the reign of Amenemhat III, ca. 1800 BC.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Story_of_Sinuhe
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Lapis lazuli and the Great Khorasan Road.....The trade road that ran from Khorasan & Balkh (Aria) to Babylon and Susa and Egypt - from the northeast to the southwest of present day Iran - was in medieval times called the Great Khorasan Road......The site was a Sumerian settlement first inhabited c. 5000 BCE which comprised a village and a fortress. ( 5325 BCE - c. 4500 BCE.....The Sumerians built their first temple). It became an important stop along the Great Khorasan Road trade route, better known as the Silk Road, which was the major avenue for trade for close to 3000 years (the designation "silk road" was first coined in 1877 by the German geographer Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen in reference to the trade of Chinese silk). As the Khorasan Road was not the only one used in trade, and silk was not the only commodity traded, many modern scholars prefer "silk routes" as the name for trade routes, with Khorasan Road being only one of many"....Lapis lazuli and the Great Khorasan Road by Y. Majidzadeh
Egyptian goddess Hathor as Lapis Lazuli....Top quality lapis lazuli comes from Afghanistan where it has been mined for centuries.
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"Egyptian mythology parallels much of Vedic and Hindu mythology because both cultures observed the same long series of cosmic events. In addition it provides more graphic images than do the Indian myths.....Just as the Vedic myth, Egyptian myth describes land in the heavens surrounded by water. This was the planet priori-Mars, in geosynchronous orbit over the Transhimalayas. It was characterized as having earth, sky and the mysterious Duat. It comprised Nut the watery one, the solid portion, Geb and the deity which was thought to keep it from falling to Earth, Shu. The Duat was probably the portion of priori-Mars which was ‘stationary’ over the Transhimalayas to the east of Egypt, was also referred to as ‘Horus Am Akhet’, or ‘Horus on the horizon.’ This was also the Egyptian name for the Sphinx (the Greek name) which faces the east toward its location."....Mythology - Egyptian.....by John Ackerman....http://www.firmament-chaos.com/mythology_egyptian.html
John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….March 2013