565 AD......"The Shahi (Devanagari: शाही), Sahi, also called Shahiya or Hindu Shahi dynasties ruled what included portions of the Kabulistan and the old province of Gandhara (now in northern Pakistan), from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century.....The kingdom was known as "Kabul Shahi" (Kabul-shāhān or Ratbél-shāhān in Persian کابلشاهان یا رتبیل شاهان) between 565 and 879AD when they had Kapisa and Kabul as their capitals, and later as Hindu Shahi".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabul_Shahi
"In 617 A.D. Namri Songtsen, the 32nd King of the peoples of Tibet, had a son named Tri Songtsen Gampo. This young ruler (he was 13 when he ascended the throne in 630) quickly squashed the attempted coup that accompanied his father's assassination and then proceeded with the systematic and bloodthirsty reduction of all traces of opposition to his control over the Tibetan Plateau. Having married his sister to the king of Suvarnadwipa, he conspired with her in the latter's ambush and murder. Following upon the death of the last descendant of the matriarchal dynasty of Suvarnadwipa, the armies of Tibet streamed westward along the Indus and north toward the vast basin lands of the Tarim. .....http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
"In 641 the minister Tao-tsung, prince of Chiang-hsia, escorted the Chinese princess Wen-ch'eng as far as the border of Tibet, where she was received by Tri Songtsen Gampo. In Lhasa they were married......Songtsen Gampo, being the founder of the Tibetan Empire and a patron of civilization in that country, and having, due to the prompting of his two wives, initiated the planting of Buddhism in Tibetan soil....Songtsen Gampo died of the plague in 649 A.D."
"In 642 A.D., a "King Ta-mo-yin-t'o-ho-szu" of Uddiyana is said to have sent a gift of camphor and an embassy to the Emperor of China....http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
642 AD.... "This is the year that the Arabs succeeded in defeating the King of Kings, Yazdagird 111, of Persia. The latter, fleeing eastward, met his death near Merv in 651. With the death of Yazdagird, last of the Sassanid dynasty, the southern bedouin hordes of Islam for the first time marched onto the soil of Iran and began their great, rapacious advance eastward.".....http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
In 645 AD, when Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang was passing through the Uttarapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence. The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa rulers for strategic reasons.....http://www.jatland.com/home/Waihind
649 AD...."Tibet's Songtsen Gampo died of the plague in 649 A.D....his regent Gar Tongtsen, who immediately embarked on a series of campaigns in Central Asia, taking from China the Indo-European kingdoms of Khotan, Kucha, Karashahr and Kashgar. In 666 A.D. Gar Tongtsen returned victoriously to Lhasa, where he died of fever a year later, leaving power in the hands of his son."
"In 650 Abdallah ibn Amr began the yet further push forwards across the desert of the Dasht-i-Lut. He was followed over the years by succeeding Moslem armies which, through continuous raids, massacres and looting, systematically transformed the wondrous flower-garden of Persian civilization and Mazdean or Buddhist culture into a scorched wasteland."...http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
"In 663 A.D. Ibn Samurah fought his way into Kabul, but his success was only temporary........The Turkish Shahi kingdom of Kapisa-(with Kabul on the south as its capital) and the central Afghan massif of Ghor (now the Hazarajat), held against the invader, and for many centuries remained unconquered and primarily Buddhist......http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
664 AD....."In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul and Kapisa in second half of 7th century (AD 664), the Kapisa/Kabul ruler called by Muslim writers Kabul Shahi (Shahi of Kabul) made an appeal to the Kshatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost......This king of Kapisa/Kabul who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Kshatriya."....http://www.jatland.com/home/Waihind
665 AD....."....reading the T'ang Annals, we note that a party of Uddiyanean ambassadors presented themselves at the Chinese Court in 665 A.D., and granting the length and hardships of the journey, it is practical to assume that the embassy's presence was a direct response to Ibn Samurah's raid. Kapisa's strength, backed by the armies of Imperial China, acted as a major bulwark against Islam penetrating the Pamir, and significantly protected Uddiyana."
"In AD 671 when Muslim armies seized Kabul then the capital was moved to Udabhandapura, Modern day Und near modern Attock, also called Waihind by Al Biruni (Wink p 125), where they became known as the Rajas of Hindustan or Hindu Shahi. Udabhanda was the capital of the Shahi dynasty."
"In 672 AD......an Arab governor of Sistan, Abbad ibn Ziyad, raided the frontier of Al-Hind and crossed the desert to Gandhara, but quickly retreated again."
698 AD......"The marauder Obaidallah crossed the Sita River and made a raid on Kabul in 698 only to meet with defeat and humiliation. "
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714 AD....."Subhakarasimha's journey to China which interests us is his brief stay in Uddiyana between the years 714 and 715 A.D...... He was an Indian monk who passed through the country early in the 8th century. Subhakarasimha was a monk from Magadha who stopped in Uddiyana on his way to China. Later in China he became famous as a teacher of the Yoga tantras. The Chinese called him Shan-wa-wei. ...Subhakarasimha's father was King Buddhakara of Kalinga.".......Pei, in the Wen-yuan ying-huo reports that he was commissioned to teach the profound Mahavairocana-tantra to the son of the khatun of Uddiyana. The term khatun is a Turkishahiya title for Queen. This implies that the King of Uddiyana, " Ta-mo-yin-t'o-ho-szu," mentioned in the Chinese records for the year 642 AD, was deceased. A Queen, or Khatun, was on the throne, and she had a son and heir-a boy who was sufficiently mature to be involved in the higher scholastic Sanskrit studies of Yoga tantra. This boy must have been the young Indrabhuti, the king of Udiyana who figures so prominently in the biography of Lord Padmasambhava."........http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
719 AD....."The warlike activity and expansion of the Tibetan Empire continued unabated through the reign of the Hsuan-tsung Emperor of China, and we read that the latter, in 719 A.D., was hard pressed to block the advances of the Tibetans, on the one hand, and the Moslem Arabs, on the other.".......http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
720 AD....."Six years after Subhakarasimha's visit, in 720 A.D., the T'ang Annals state that the Emperor sent ambassadors to Uddiyana to confer the investiture on the new king. Therefore, 720 A.D. must mark the date that King Indrabhuti, the famous adoptive father of Padmasambhava, succeeded to the throne. ....In the country of Urgyen (or Udyana), westward from Bodh-Gaya, there was the great city of Jatumati, containing a palace called 'Emerald Palace' wherein dwelt King Indrabodhi....we must also remember that Indrabhuti was a factual historical character, and his adopted son, the great saint Lord Padmasambhava, likewise possessed a factual existence. .........http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
720 AD......"Gilgit is a small state that borders on the north of Uddiyana. Between 720 - 726 AD the King of Baltistan moved his seat westwards to Gilgit out of fear of the Tibetan advance. It becomes apparent as we sift through the records, that more and more territory on the edges of Uddiyana was being eaten up by the expanding Tibetan Empire during this period.....http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
732 AD...."According to the ancient, written Ka-ma tradition of the cycle of Vajrakilaya teachings, Padmasambhava was the son of a royal heir, Prince Mahusita of Dhanakosha, in Uddiyana. Originally given the name Dhanaraksita, which means " Protector of Charity" , it is stated that he was born in the year of the water monkey (732 A.D.). Thus his mundane birth and status as a prince of Uddiyana may be pinpointed as a fact of history. .....At the age of eight the princely child was adopted by King Indrabhuti and made heir to the throne of Uddiyana. ".....http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
745 A.D....... "As mentioned above, the T'ang Annals record for that year, the investiture of the King of Kapisa with rulership over Uddiyana.....It is in consequence of the evil act of killing the son of a baron, or the mother and child of a minister, that the young prince Padmasambhava is banished from the Kingdom...Padmasambhava's banishment to foreign lands, reflects the changes wrought when the powerful lords of Kapisa seized, as we know they did, control of the Swat Valley. Uddiyana was defeated and utterly lost its independence. Whatever happened to Indrabhuti we do not know, but it is probable that he was slain, or perhaps as a blind captive, was dragged ignominiously back to Kabul in chains. At any rate Padmasambhava fled in the direction of Kashmir." .........http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
745 A.D. ..."....the Chinese Court is suddenly seen to confer upon the king of Kapisa the double investiture of " king of Kapisa and Uddiyana." .......http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
745 AD......"Padmasambhava's route of escape is fairly evident. There was only one direction for him to go. About 30 kilometres north of the old capital of Mangalapura he must have taken the ancient trail over the Shangla Pass to present day Besham on the Indus River, a 70 kilometre trek. From Besham he would have had to make the long hike up the Indus, past Dassu and the famous Buddhist rock carvings of Shatial and Chilas, until many days later he could have entered the relative safety of Baltistan. The latter country is formed by the long valley of the Indus from where it meets the Karakorum Highway at Gilgit up to Skardu. On this perilous journey Padmasambhava would have skirted around the sandy base of 26,660 foot high Nanga Parvata, the ninth highest peak in the world....Baltistan, or Greater Pu-lu as we find it called in the Chinese annals, was under the protection of Tibet.".........http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#eightcentury
748 AD......"Mention of tribute from the King of Kapisa in 748 A.D. ascertains that by that date Uddiyana had become a vassal state. As we shall see, it was in the very midst of this turmoil and change that Padmasambhava lived....."
750 AD..... By 750 the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese. In 753, even the kingdom of "Little Balur" (modern Gilgit) was captured by the Chinese. However, after Gao Xianzhi's defeat by the Caliphate and Qarluqs at the Battle of Talas (751), Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence began to increase again. Tibet conquered large sections of northern India during this time.
786 AD....."Nothing is really reported concerning Padmasambhava's life in Kashmir (745-752 AD).... He lived, some say, with wandering yogis and saddhus, in exile from his homeland. Others report that it was during this period that he acquired worldly knowledge and skill in various crafts. Howbeit, in Kashmir he earned the name Sthiramati, the Youthful Genius. ....In the spring of 786 AD by the Tibetan reckoning a Fire Tiger year, the Precious Lord, or " Guru Rinpoche" as he is most commonly known in Tibetan, set forth across the high passes of the Himalaya. On the Tibetan frontier, in Mangyul, he was met by five royal ministers to escort him to the Imperial Palace. In the valley of Tsang he was greeted by a messenger with a white horse. Riding in state to the town of Turdlung, he was welcomed with a grand reception. Then in the Tamarisk Garden near Red Rock, he was royally received by the Emperor. He was about 54 years old"......http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
804 AD.... Prof. Tucci, Preliminary Report on an Archaeological Survey of Swat,:....."Laghman, an independent nation prior to Hiuen Tsiang's time, had certainly become a tributary province of Kapisa by 629 A.D. Since Kabul was not overrun - and then only temporarily - by the Moslem invasion until as late as 870 A.D., Laghman's status would still have been that of a Buddhist province of Kapisa (Shambhala) in 804 A.D. The Sanskrit name of the country was Lampaka and Hiuen Tsiang lists it as Lan-po. The sacred mountain in question would be that of Sri Aruna Parvata, Aruna " the Red" , now thought by some to be the Chehel Dukhtaran peak."
"Laghman is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the east of Afghanistan, the capital is Mehtar Lam.....During the invasions of Alexander the Great, the area was formerly known as Lampaka which a series of inscription from Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, who ruled from 269 to 232 B.C. ...Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang, visited the Laghman......(Sidenote: Mihtarlam (Pashto: مهترلام, Persian: مهترلام), also spelled Mehtar Lam......The tomb of Lamech, father of Noah is believed to be in the area, discovered by Mahmud of Ghazni. A shrine was built there, which is revered nowadays.) "
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"In 801 AD, Tibetans were active as far west as Balkh, Samarkand and Kabul. Caliphate forces began to gain the upper hand, and the Tibetan governor of Kabul submitted to the Caliphate and became a Muslim about 812 or 815. The Caliphate then struck east from Kashmir, but were held off by the Tibetans. In the meantime, the Uyghur Khaganate attacked Tibet from the northeast. Strife between the Uyghurs and Tibetans continued for some time."
"Sometime around 950 A.D., a certain King Indrabhuti of Uddiyana married his sister, Laksminkara, to the " Hindu king of Lankapuri." This latter, a kingdom south of Uddiyana we can identify with Hiuen Tsiang's Simhapura in the Salt Range.....The actual site of the ancient Padmavabhasa Citadel in the Salt Range is still open to question: it could be near Malot, not far from Ketas (the ancient capital of Simhapura), where now stands the red sandstone remains of some eighth century Kashmiri style temples; or it could have been at Mount Sukesar (4,992 ft), the highest peak in the Range. The latter may be the Arunachala, the " Red Mountain" of Padmasambhava's biography.....Another but less likely location for the Guru's final residence would be the old fort at Nandana, later occupied by the Hindushahi rulers when they fled from their capital at Wahind after their defeat in 1001 A.D. by Mahmud of Ghazni. ".... ...http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
1001 AD......"Nandana or Nandna was a fort built at strategic location on a hilly range on the eastern flanks of the Salt Range in Punjab Pakistan. Its ruins, including those of a town and a temple, are present. It was ruled by the Hindu Shahi kings until, in the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni expelled them from Nandana. Anandapala, the son of Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi dynasty, had erected the Shiva temple in Nandana."
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870 AD......"Vincent Smith, in Early History of India, states that the Turkishahiya dynasty continued to rule over Kabul and Gandhara up until the advent of the Saffarids in the ninth century. Forced by the inevitable advance of Islam on the west, they then moved their capital from Kapisa to Wahund on the Indus, whence they continued as the Hindushahiya dynasty. This was in 870 A.D. and marks the first time that the Kingdom of Shambhala actually came under Moslem domination." ...http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm
"The Hindushahis recaptured Kabul and the rest of their Kingdom after the death of the conqueror Yaqub but never again maintained Kapisa as their capital."
870 AD......The Shahis of Kabul/Gandhara are generally divided into the two eras of the so-called Buddhist-Shahis and the so-called Hindu-Shahis, with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around AD 870.".....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabul_Shahi
870 AD....."TurkI Shahiya kings had ruled in Kabul until the capture of that city by the Arab general, Yakub-i- Lais in 870 a. d. a After that date the capital was shifted to Ohind, (Waihind ) near Peshawar"
"In 870/871, Ya'qub marched against the Kharijites of Herat, and defeated them. He then marched towards Karukh, and defeated another Khariji leader who was named Abd al-Rahman. Ya'qub then pardoned Abd al-Rahman and made him governor of Isfizar.......His army would later march to Ghazna, Kabul, and Bamyan, conquering these territories in the name of Islam by appointing Muslim governors. From there they moved to north of the Hindu Kush and by 870 AD the whole of Khorasan was brought under their control. The Panjshir Valley was now under Ya'qub's control, which made him able to mint silver coins...... In 873, Ya'qub ousted the Tahirids from their own capital of Nishapur, and captured it's ruler Muhammad ibn Tahir, which led to conflicts with the Abbasid caliphate. During one of Ya'qub's numerous battles, his face was disfigured to where he could only eat through a pipe in his mouth for twenty days."..http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ya%27qub_ibn_al-Layth_al-Saffar
"873 AD...The Saffarids used their capital Zaranj as a base for an aggressive expansion eastward and westward. They first invaded the areas south of the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and then overthrew the Persian Tahirid dynasty, annexing Khorasan in 873. By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered the Kabul Valley, Sindh, Tocharistan, Makran (Balochistan), Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, and nearly reached Baghdad but then suffered a defeat by the Abbasids."
879 AD...."Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar (يعقوب بن الليث الصفار), or Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari (یعقوب لیث صفاری), born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak (Persian: رادمان پور ماهک) (840 – 879 AD), a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan). He ruled territories that are now in Iran and Afghanistan, as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part of Iraq. He was succeeded by his brother, Amr ibn al-Layth.....
1010 AD......"Anandapala or Anantpala was the third and last ruler of the Kabul Shahi dynasty in what is now Pakistan. His reign began in 1001 CE and ended in or about 1010. He was the son of Jayapala, whose kingdom used to stretch from Laghman to Kashmir and Sirhind to Multan, with Peshawar being in the center...... The Hindu rulers eventually exiled themselves to the Kashmir Siwalik Hills.....The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas also known as Manak Parbat in ancient times. ..."
John Hopkins....Northern New Mexico