Friday, May 16, 2014

Zhangzhung: The Outer, Inner and Middle Regions

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"...some of the ancient texts describing the Zhang Zhung kingdom also claimed the Sutlej valley was Shambhala."

"Tradition has it that Zhang Zhung consisted "of three different regions: sGob-ba, the outer; Phug-pa, the inner; and Bar-ba, the middle. The outer is what we might call Western Tibet, from Gilgit in the west to Dangs-ra khyung-rdzong in the east, next to lake gNam-mtsho, and from Khotan in the north to Chu-mig brgyad-cu rtsa-gnyis in the south. The inner region is said to be sTag-gzig (Tazig) [often identified with Bactria], and the middle rGya-mkhar bar-chod, a place not yet identified....some of the ancient texts describing the Zhang Zhung kingdom also claimed the Sutlej valley was Shambhala,.....There is some confusion as to whether Tibet destroyed Zhangzhung during the reign of Songtsän Gampo (605 or 617? - 649) or in the reign of Trisong Detsen (Wylie: Khri-srong-lde-btsan), (r. 755 until 797 or 804 CE)."..... Karmey, Samten G. (1975). "'A General Introduction to the History and Doctrines of Bon"

sGob-ba, the outer..... "The outer is what we might call Western Tibet, from Gilgit (Bru sha) in the west to Dangs-ra khyung-rdzong in the east, next to lake gNam-mtsho, and from Khotan in the north to Chu-mig brgyad-cu rtsa-gnyis in the south.....in one Bon text from the early 1970's it is referred to as sGab, 'Secret'.......Outer Zhang zhung's capital city was named Khyung lung dngul mkar (Silver Garuda Palace), located southwest of Ti se (Mt Kailash).....Remains of palaces in the upper gLang chen kha 'ban (Sanskrit: Sutudri/Sutleg) Valley may have been part of Outer Zhang zhungs capital area....Zhangzhung was destroyed by the Tibetans about 645 AD..".....Historical Dictionary of Tibet.

Phug-pa, the inner..... The inner region is said to be sTag-gzig (Tazig) ...often identified with Bactria....

Bar-ba, ( rGya-mkhar bar-chod, )....the middle..... Ngari region

"Shang Shung was traditionally divided into three wide regions:
* Gopa (External Shang-Shung) – corresponding to modern Central and East Tibet.
* Phug pa (Inner Shang Shung)) – reaching three month-walk from Kailash westwards and which included 32 districts.
* Bar pa (Central Shang Shung) – corresponding to the modern Ngari region or West Tibet, which included three districts named Maryul, Guge and Phurang.

"... The Bonpo texts further speak of the three portals or doors of Zhang-zhung and some of these texts assert that Tazig is the middle door (sgo bar ma). According to Lopon Tenzin Namdak, the outer door (sgo phyi pa) is Zhang-zhung itself, the middle door (sgo bar ma) is Tazig, and the inner door (sgo phug pa) is Olmo Lungring. From the innermost gate outwards this represents the movement or progress of the teachings of Yungdrung Bon into the outer world and especially Tibet. At that time Tazig was said to have been inhabited by the “sTag gzig hos rigs”, the royal race (rgyal rigs) of the “Hos” or Persians (the Chinese “Hu”). But in an even earlier time the people belonged to the lineage of the “rGyal bu `thing ge”. And in the “Ma rgyud” is found the story of the emperor Gyer wer of Tazig who ruled most of the known world."....bon-encyclopedia

"...In the Bonpo texts the land of Olmo Lungring is said to be divided into four concentric regions: the inner region (nang gling), the middle region (bar gling), the outer region (phyi gling), and the border region (mtha` gling). The inner and middle regions consist of twelve districts or islands (gling), the outer region of sixteen, and the border region also of twelve. These regions and districts (gling) are all separated by rivers and lakes and inland seas. The innermost region has the form geographically of an eight petalled lotus blossom and the sky above it corresponds to the form of a wheel or chakra of eight spokes.".....John Myrdhin Reynolds

Historical Dictionary of Tibet.....By John Powers, David Templeman....The Historical Dictionary of Tibet is the most comprehensive dictionary published to date on Tibetan history. It covers the history of Tibet from 27,000 BCE to the present through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 1,000 cross-referenced dictionary entries on important personalities, politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, culture, anthropology, and sociology.

A History of Zhang Zhung and Tibet, Volume One: The Early Period, Volume 1......By Chogyal Namkhai Norbu....Publication Date: May 14, 2013.......explores ancient Tibet's Zhang Zhung kingdom and Bon religion that preceded the advent of Buddhism in the seventh century.

The Treasury of Good Sayings: A Tibetan History of Bon......edited by Samten G. Karmey

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….May 2014

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