"Khyungsprul Rinpoche (Khyung sprul rin po che) (1897-1955), who spent more than fifty years of his life traveling in Tibet, India, Bhutan and Nepal, was one of the most renowned Bon po pilgrims of his time. Born into a family of A mdo Ga rgya aristocratic lineage, in the nomadic Bon po kingdom of Hor, he showed a great will to devote his entire life to religious activities from a very early age.......The whole of his spiritual life was inspired by the ris med movement, making no distinction between Bon and Buddhism, as he constantly asserted in his poems.1 Thus, he received his full drang srong vows in the Bon po scholastic tradition of sMan ri monastery (gTsang), but later he had no objections in joining the Buddhist community of rdzogs chen practitioners established in Nam mkha’ khyung rdzong (mNga' ris) under the guidance of bDe chen rgyal po. He spent a large part of his time in India as a Buddhist pilgrim visiting most of the sacred sites of northern India,- but at the same time he was the instigator of the return of Bon po traditions to the ancient land of Zhang zhung in mNga' ris. Very significantly, he showed a particular interest for the remote Kinnaur valley." ....Josep Lluís Alay .......University of Barcelona
"In the heart of the Lippa (Kinnaur village) woods, his exceptional knowledge attracted a large group of Buddhist Kinnauri followers and eventually, after returning to mNga' ris, he founded a permanent Bon po monastery on the barren plain of Gur gyam. After establishing his permanent seat there, he and his followers continued to cross the Western Himalayan borders through Kinnaur and Garhwal — in present-day Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, respectively — until the end of his life....Most of his religious and medical activities were concentrated around the banks of the Upper Sutlej river, where he had earlier founded Gur gyam mDo sngags grags rgyas gling Monastery next to g.Yung drung rin chen 'bar ba'i brag phug, the eighth century meditation cave of Dran pa nam mkha’ according to the Bon po tradition. Khyung sprul rin po che identified the area surrounding Gur gyam as Khyung lung dngul mkhar, the capital city of the ancient Zhang zhung kingdom. ".......Josep Lluís Alay .......University of Barcelona
Josep Lluís Alay, “The Early Years of Khyung sprul rin po che: Hor (1897-1919)”, Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, no. 20, Avril 2011....The Early Years of Khyung sprul rin po che: Hor (1897-1919)* by Josep Lluís Alay University of Barcelona
"Ninth Chapter.......On his pilgrimage to Gangs ri mtsho gsum and how he received the deep teachings of rdzogs chen from his lama in Nam mkha' khyung rdzong after visiting Za hor, Kinnaur and Zhang zhung in mNga' ris......Western Tibet (1924-1925)
Tenth chapter.....The Early Years of Khyung sprul......On his retreat in Khyung lung dngul mkhar rgyal ba mnyes pa.......Western Tibet (1925-1929)
Eleventh chapter.... On how he wandered around Zhang zhung, India, O rgyan, Za hor and Kinnaur.....Western Tibet (1930-1934)
Twelfth Chapter.....On how he founded a new monastery in Khyung lung dngul mkhar of Inner Zhang- zhung.....Western Tibet (1935-1947)
"In 1996 the abbot of Gur gyam Monastery, dGe slong bsTan 'dzin dbang grags, wrote a book on the History of mNga' ris in which he highlighted the relevance of Khyung sprul rin po che in the reintroduction of Bon in mNga' ris."
"Per Kvaerne published Khyung-sprul 'Jigs-med nam- mkha'i rdo-rje (1897-1995): An Early Twentieth-century Tibetan Pilgrim in India in English as a chapter in Pilgrimage in Tibet. This was considered the starting point for Khyung sprul rin po che's biographical studies and gave rise later in 2001 to an unpublished master’s dissertation by Sonam Chogyal about the Bon po lama's foundation of his own monastery in mNga' ris. More recently, a few studies have been published examining a number of more specific aspects of Khyung sprul rin po che's life and works."...
".... his biography also provides a unique, and therefore highly valuable, source of information regarding the traditional toponymy and onomastics of remote and isolated regions including Hor, Kinnaur and mNga’ ris (Ngari Prefecture)....."
"Most of his religious and medical activities were concentrated around the banks of the Upper Sutlej river, where he had earlier founded Gurugem (Gur gyam mDo sngags grags rgyas gling) Monastery next to g.Yung drung rin chen 'bar ba'i brag phug, the eighth century meditation cave of Dran pa nam mkha’ according to the Bon po tradition. Khyung sprul rin po che identified the area surrounding Gur gyam as Khyung lung dngul mkhar, the capital city of the ancient Zhang zhung kingdom......
Gurugem cave monastery.....Gurugem monastery is a site of worship for both Bon believers and Buddhists......The eighth century meditation cave of Drenpa Namkha .... Garuda Valley, Tsaparang, Ngari province, Western Tibet......Nearby cities: Thal, DEWALTHAL देवलथल, Karnaprayag .....Coordinates: 31°7'47"N 80°38'24"E
"Drenpa Namkha (Tibetan: dran pa nam mkha' ) was born in the 8th century near Mount Kailash in Chunlung Ngul Kha in south-western Tibet. As a young student he was a blessed with eight principal Bon teachers. Drenpa Namkha became a self-realized supreme master of the three Bon practices, known as Sutra, Tantra and Dzogchen. Drenpa Namkha is the primary long-life deity according to Bon.....One of the foremost Bonpos of the time, Drenpa Namkha (Dran-pa Nam-mkha'), played an important role during the second persecution of Bon. He headed the Bonpo side in a contest against the Buddhists organized by the king to discover which side had the greatest miraculous power....Drenpa Namkha is a popular personage in the Bon tradition. Drenpa Namkha's biography in eight volumes was published by sPa-tshang Sonam Gyantsan, Delhi in 1983. Drenpa Namkha is said to have had twin sons: Tshe-dbang Rig-'dzin, a Bon teacher, and Pad-ma 'Byung-gnas, the famous Buddhist teacher Padmsambhava.....Later masters said to be reincarnations of Drenpa Namkha include Bonpo Traksel (bon po brag tshal, d.u.), Rigdzin Trinle Lhundrub (rig 'dzin phrin las lhun grub, d.u.), and Drenpa Zungi Namtrul (dren pa zung gi rnam 'phrul, d.u.).".....Karmay, The Treasury of Good Sayings, Oxford University Press, London 1972
"Ngari Prefecture (also: Ali Prefecture) (Tibetan: མངའ་རིས་ས་ཁུལ་, Wylie: mnga' ris sa khul; simplified Chinese: 阿里地区; traditional Chinese: 阿里地區; pinyin: Ālǐ Dìqū) ......Ngari sits 4,500 meters above sea level in the northwest of Tibet, 1,600 kilometers from the capital Lhasa. The heart of the ancient Tibetan Guge kingdom was once here. Later Ngari, along with Ü and Tsang composed Ü-Tsang, one of the traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo and Kham.....Ngari is emblazoned with its holy Kangrinboqe (also named as Sumeru and Kailash ) Mountain and Mapam Yumco Lake. Kangrinboqe is 6,714 m (22,028 ft) above see level, it's the main peak of the Kangdese Mountains (also called the Kailas Range or the Gangdisê Mountains). The holy mountain and lake are connected to different religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, & Bon."
"The Rimé movement was a movement involving the Sakya, Kagyu, Nyingma & Bon Schools of Tibetan Buddhism..... Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (1820–1892)....and Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé (1813-1899) .....compiled together the teachings of the Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma, including many near-extinct teachings.......Rimé movement was not exactly eclectic but universalistic (and encyclopaedic), rimed (pa) (the antonym of risu ch'edpa) meaning unbounded, all-embracing, unlimited, and also impartial.".....The movement's name is derived from two Tibetan words: Ris (bias, side) and Med (lack), which combined expresses the idea of openness to other Tibetan Buddhist traditions, as opposed to sectarianism. The Rimé movement therefore is often misunderstood as trying to unite the various sects through their similarities. Rather Rimé was intended to recognize the differences between traditions and appreciate them, while also establishing a dialogue which would create common ground. It is considered important that variety be preserved, and therefore Rimé teachers are generally careful to emphasize differences in thought, giving students many options as to how to proceed in their spiritual training."......http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rimé_movement
The Early Years of Khyung sprul rin po che: Hor (1897-1919)......by Josep Lluís Alay University of Barcelona..... The Early Years of Khyung sprul rin po che: Hor (1897-1919). Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, no. 20 (April 2011), pp. 205-230. Khyung-sprul Rin-po-che’s (1897-1955) biography. This is evidently meant to be part of a continuing series of articles about him, since it is limited to his early years.
Moulin, Christophe .... History of Bön - second part: The Propagation of Bön in Zhang-zhung and Tibet
Karmay (1972). The Treasury of Good Sayings, Oxford University Press, London.
Kvæne, Per (1995). The Bon Religion Of Tibet: The Iconography Of A Living Tradition.
Mandelbaum, Arthur; John Bellezza (August 2007). "Drenpa Namkha". The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters.
John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….May 2014