Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Kingdom of Balkh: 2500 BC

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"The period between 26th and 20th century BCE was the most important period in the history of Balkh; it's in this relatively short period that a kingdom was established, then the population started to disperse and the kingdom started to shrink until the Median and Persian empires in 700 BC, around 1000 years later."....http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/archeology-v

Balkh is one of the oldest cities in the world and is considered to be the first city to which the Indo-Iranian tribes moved from the North of Amu Darya.....[Nancy Hatch Dupree, An Historical Guide to Afghanistan, 1977, Kabul, Afghanistan]

The Arabs called it Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.[UNESCO-one of the oldest cities in the world and was the thriving centre of Buddhist, Persian and Turkic arts and architecture'. As quoted in "Taliban, 2nd ed.", page 9 by journalist Rashid, Ahmed. also Frank Harold, Balkhi and Mazar-e-Sharif Silk Road Seattle, a project of the Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities at the University of Washington]....

"....at a very early date, Balkh was the rival of Ecbatana, Nineveh and Babylon. There is a long-standing tradition that an ancient shrine of Anahita was to be found here, a temple so rich it invited plunder."

"Balkh is mythically ascribed to Keyumars, (Gar-shāh : King of the Mountains) was the first human, the first king of the world in Persian legend ; and it is at least certain that, at a very early date, it was the rival of Ecbatana, Nineveh and Babylon. There is a long-standing tradition that an ancient shrine of Anahita was to be found here, a temple so rich it invited plunder."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyumars

The city was traditionally a center of Zoroastrianism.....Balkh was regarded as the first place where Zoroaster first preached his religion, as well as the place where he died..[The Greeks in Bactria and India. William Woodthorpe Tarn. 1st Edition, 1938; 2nd Updated Edition, 1951. 3rd Edition, updated with a Preface and a new bibliography by Frank Lee Holt. Ares Publishers, Inc., Chicago. 1984. (1984), pp. 114–115 and n. 1]

The name Zariaspa, which is either an alternate name for Balkh or a term for part of the city, may derive from the important Zoroastrian fire temple Azar-i-Asp.[The Greeks in Bactria and India. William Woodthorpe Tarn. 1st Edition, 1938; 2nd Updated Edition, 1951. 3rd Edition, updated with a Preface and a new bibliography by Frank Lee Holt. Ares Publishers, Inc., Chicago. 1984. (1984), pp. 114–115 and n. 1

..Balkh was one of the major cities of Khorasan...."land where the sun rises"....

Since the Indo-Iranians built their first kingdom in Balkh (Bactria, Daxia, Bukhdi) some scholars believe that it was from this area that different waves of Indo-Iranians spread to north-east Iran and Seistan region.....http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/iran-vi1-earliest-evidence

c. 2550 BC: Estimated date of completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
c. 2550 BC: Egyptian rulers contact Western Desert oases, such as Dakhla Oasis.
c. 2550 BC: About this time, Mesannepada, founds the First dynasty of Ur
c. 2500 BC: The legendary line of Sanhuangwudi rulers of China is founded by Huang Di.
c. 2500 BC: the construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge begins and continues for the next five hundred years
c. 2500 BCE: Cylinder seal from Sumer and its impression are made

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….July 2013

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