Sunday, August 24, 2014

Dhanyakataka Stupa, Amaravati & the Krishna River Valley

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Ancient Dhanyakataka Stupa at Amaravati, Guntur district, India.....This is the oldest of all Kalachakra Stupas and the place where according to Vajrayana oral transmission the Kalachakra tantra was first revealed by the historical Buddha.

""On the full moon of March/April, the twelfth month counted from the time he [Shakyamuni] obtained buddhahood, the Buddha was teaching the Paramitayana at Mount Vulture Heap. At the same time he manifested another form inside the great stupa of Shri Dhanyakataka, which is near Shri Parvata in south India where he taught the Mantrayana. The great stupa was more than six leagues from top to bottom, and inside it the Buddha emitted two mandalas: below the mandala of Dharmadhatu Vagishvara, above the great mandala of the splendid asterisms. The Buddha was in the centre on the Vajra lion throne in the great Mandala of the Sphere of Vajra, the abode of great bliss. He was absorbed in the Kalachakra samadhi, and stood in the form of the Lord of the mandala."....http://kalachakranet.org

"The location where Buddha Shakyamuni taught the Kalachakra tantra lies near the ancient town of Amaravati, situated few kilometers away from Guntur on the south of the river Krishna. From the 3rd BCE to the 12th CE, the city was a flourishing Buddhist center.".....http://kalachakranet.org

"......the Buddha taught The Root Kalachakra Tantra in the ninth century BCE and that the First Kalki King of Shambhala compiled The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra seven centuries later. Only the latter text has survived....The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra was composed between the end of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth centuries CE, as a composite of different portions compiled in perhaps several areas in the region spanning eastern Afghanistan, Oddiyana (present-day northwestern Pakistan, including western Punjab and Swat), and Kashmir. It reflects the world situation in which Buddhists of that period in those regions lived."....http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study/islam/kalachakra_islam/kalachakra_presentation_prophets_in/kc_pres_prophets_islam_full.html

"According to archaeologists, Amaravati stupa was built in the 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE Subsequent additions were made in the 1st-4th centuries CE under both Satavahana and Ikshvaku kings. The site lies close to the ancient Satavahana capital, Dhanyakataka."........http://kalachakranet.org

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"By tradition the Dhanyakataka Stupa is located at Amaravati, in south India, where the Dalai Lama gave a Kalachakra Initiation in January of 2006....His Holiness the Dalai Lama has kindly consented to bestow Kalachakra initiation in January 2006 at Amravati in Andhra Pradesh. The small town in southeastern India is holy for the Buddhists as it was the place where Lord Buddha gave the first Kalachakra root tantra on the request of King Dawa Sangpo (Suchandra).....This Kalachakra is the 30th and it significantly coincides with the 2550th anniversary of the passing away of Lord Buddha. His Holiness the Dalai Lama gave the first Kalachakra initiation in 1954 at Norbulingka in Lhasa, Tibet..".....http://tibet.net/2005/03/26/kalachakra-at-amravati-in-2006/

"Archaeological findings indicate that very little was added to the stupa after the 3rd century CE. It seems that the structure was maintained, although interest in Buddhism declined from that time onwards. When the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang visited the area in the 7th century, the stupa was already decrepit and Hinduism had revived in the region. Nevertheless, he observed about twenty Buddhist monasteries in the area with about one thousand monks in residence, mostly belonging to the Mahasamghika School.".......http://kalachakranet.org

"Shambhala or "bde 'byung" in Tibetan, means "The source of happiness"......The Kingdom of Shambhala takes a central place in the Kalachakra teachings. Not only did the historical Shakyamuni Buddha teach the Kalachakra tantra at the request of King Suchandra of Shambhala, also the teachings are said to be preserved there. It is predicted that a few centuries from now, a spiritual revival of the world will come from Shambhala.... 3 Shambhalas. 'Outer Shambhala' exists as a kingdom in the external world, the 'Inner Shambhala' lies hidden in the body and mind, and the 'Other Shambhala' is the Kalachakra mandala with all its deities. "..........http://kalachakranet.org

"Amaravati, 6 January 2006 - His Holiness the Dalai Lama began the Kalachakra 2006 yesterday. Thanking the state government of Andhra Pradesh for extending infrastructural facilities for the Kalachakra, the 70 year-old Tibetan leader said that the Kalachakra in Amaravati holds a special significance as it is believed to be the place where Buddha gave the first Kalachakra Initiation.....The Dalai Lama said that the leaders of Andhra Pradesh are very concerned about the Kalachakra and Buddhism in Andhra Pradesh and that he had extended his gratitude to them for their efforts.....The Tibetan leader also said that Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are popular Buddhist pilgrimage destinations in India and that Andhra Pradesh has joined them. He also said that the state government is putting all its efforts to make Andhra Pradesh an important destination for Buddhists all over the world. "....www.phayul.com

"Amaravati is a town in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also referred as Amareswaram, for its famous Amareswara temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, which is one of the famous Pancharamas.....It was formerly known as Andhra Nagari. Krishna River passes through the east side of Amaravati......The recorded history of Amaravati and nearby Dharanikota dates to 2nd century BCE. It was the capital of Andhra Satavahanas who ruled from 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE......The region between Krishna and Godavari rivers was an important place for Buddhism from the 2nd century BCE with Amaravati being one of them. Buddhist stupa was built during the reign of Ashoka in 200 CE, was carved with panels that tells the story of Buddha.....During the period of the decline of Buddhism, this stupa was also neglected and it was buried under rubble. There is a 14th-century inscription in Sri Lanka which mentions repairs made to the stupa and after that it was forgotten. The stupa is related to the Vajrayana teachings of Kalachakra, still practiced today in Tibetan Buddhism. Dalai Lama of Tibet conducted a Kalachakra initiation at this location in 2006."....Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great Stūpa at Amarāvatī (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE) by Akira Shimada, Brill, 2012

"Art historians regard the Amaravati art as one of the three major styles or schools of ancient Indian art, the other two being the Gandhara style and the Mathura style. Some of the Buddhist sculptures of Amaravati betray a Greco-Roman influence that was the direct result of the close trade and diplomatic contacts between South India and the ancient Romans. Indeed, Amaravati has itself yielded a few Roman coins. "......Sculptures from Amaravati in the British Museum, D. Barrett, 1954,

"Amaravati is also known as 'Punyakshetra'. When Subramanya killed the demon Tarakasura, the Shivalingam in his throat broke and fell in five different spots, which became the Pancharama kshetras. The foremost of these is Amareswara at Amaravati where Indra and the Devas are believed to have worshipped Shiva. Amareswaram is considered sacred because of three things, the Krishna River, an important 'Kshetra' with a 'Sthalamahatyam' and the 'Sri Mahalinga Murthy', which are three sacred principles embodied in one. It was also the capital of Satavahanas, the first great Andhra kings who ruled from the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE, after the downfall of Maurya empire.".....http://guntur.nic.in/amaravati_temple.html

"Amravati or Amareswaram is regarded holy because of the presence of the Krishna river, Sthalamahatyam, a vital Kshetra and the Sri Mahalinga Murthy. Five different forms of Lord Shiva are called 'Pranaveswara', 'Agasteswara', 'Kosaleswara', 'Someswara' and 'Parthiveswara'. Lord Shiva, present in the form of a 15 ft. high white marble Shiva lingam. the temple is surrounded by four high gopuras built in typical Dravidian style.....Original Shivalingam is said to have been held in worship by the seven rishis - Kasyapa, Atri, Gowtama, Kousika, Bharadwaja, Vasishta and Jamadagni. These rishis are believed to be present in the seven tributaries of Godavari.".........http://guntur.nic.in/amaravati_temple.html

"Gautama is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi). He was one of the Maharishis of Vedic times, known to have been the discoverer of Mantras -- 'Mantra-drashtaa', in Sanskrit.......Gautama was also the author of Dharma-sutra known as Gautama Dharma sutra..... It is in fact the earliest Dharma Sutra. It contains 28 chapters with 1000 aphorisms. Almost every aspect of the observances of Hindu dharma - including the rules for the four Ashramas, the forty sanskāras, the four varnas, kingly duties, the punishments for various offences, the obsequies for the dead, do's and don'ts of food consumption, the dharmas of women, the rules for Praayaschitta (atonement for sins), and the rules of succession of property. In this sense Gautama's Dharma Shastra may perhaps be considered the oldest law book of the world."...... Introduction to Gautama The Sacred Laws of the Âryas, translated by Georg Bühler (1879), Part I: Âpastamba and Guatama. (Dharma-sutra).

"Little more than a village on the banks of the Krishna, 33km from Vijayawada, AMARAVATI is the site of a Buddhist settlement formerly known as Chintapalli, where a stupa larger than those at Sanchi was erected over relics of the Buddha in the third century BC, during the reign of Ashoka. The stupa no longer stands, but its size is evident from the mound that formed its base......

"The Krishna River is one of the most important peninsular rivers in central-southern India. The Krishna River is the third longest river in India after the Ganges and the Godavari...... the Krishna River is denoted as Krishnaveni..... The river functions as a source of irrigation for Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.....This river is revered by Hindus as sacred.....

Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra......edited by Sree Padma

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Ancient Dhanyakataka Stupa at Amaravati, Guntur district, India.....This is the oldest of all Kalachakra Stupas and the place where according to Vajrayana oral transmission the Kalachakra tantra was first revealed by the historical Buddha.

".......... ‘lanka’ villages: The Krishna River’s lanka villages (situated on the river channels and close to the mouths of the river) are highly vulnerable to both riverine and coastal flooding. These villages should be relocated to suitable and safe locations nearby, to keep human settlements out of the flood path. As in the case of Godavari River’s lanka villages, agricultural activities could however be permitted to continue in these fertile but, low-lying and flood prone areas.".....http://news.loksatta.org/2009/10/drjps-letter-to-pm-on-flood-relief-help.html

"References to Lanka in the Mahabharata.....are found in sage Markandeya's narration of the story of Rama and Sita to king Yudhishthira.......Presence of the King of Lanka in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya......Lanka king is listed as present in the conclave of kings present in Pandava king Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice........ The Vangas and Angas and Paundras and Odras and Cholas and Dravidas and Cheras and Pandyas and Mushika and Andhakas, and the chiefs of many islands and countries on the seaboard as also of frontier states, including the rulers of the Sinhalas, the barbarous mlecchas, the natives of Lanka, and all the kings of the West by hundreds, and all the chiefs of the seacoast, and the kings of the Pahlavas and the Daradas and the various tribes of the Kiratas and Yavanas and Sakras and the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas and the Kekayas and the Malavas and the inhabitants of Kasmira ... (3:51)."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanka

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 51

"....Before its appearance in the Kalachakra texts, “mleccha” was used in early Hindu literature to refer to the Macedonian Greek invaders, led by Alexander the Great in the third century BCE. Hindu literature also applied the term to subsequent foreign invaders, such as the Shakas, Kushans, and White Huns (Hephthalites).....An early appearance of the term in Buddhist literature prior to Kalachakra is in Nagarjuna’s Friendly Letter (Tib. bShes-pa’i spring-yig, Skt. Suhrllekha), written, in the second century of the common era, to King Udayana, a Shatavahana ruler of Andhra, South India."......http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study/islam/kalachakra_islam/kalachakra_presentation_prophets_in/kc_pres_prophets_islam_full.html

"Ukkala (or Okkala) is the ancient name of Orissa. The Mahabharata mentions the Ukkalas several times in the lists of ancient tribes. But Ukkala of the Buddhist texts which is co-related with names like Asitanjana, Adhisthana, Pokkharavati and Kamsabhoga (said to be native country of caravan leaders Tapassu and Bhalluka, specifically placed in Uttarapatha), therefore, must be located not to the east but to the west of Prithudaka (or Pehova). The territory therefore, inevitably tends to get connected to Pali Pokkharavati (Sanskrit Pushkalavati), which is now known as Charasaddha and is located in north-west frontier province of Pakistan above the confluence of Swat and Kabul rivers."......The Iranian Words in Buddhist Traditions, Indian Archaeology: New Perspectives: Proceedings of the XI Annual Congress of the Indian Archaeological Society, VI Annual Congress of the Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies, India, 1982, p 282-83

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"Some writers locate Kamsabhoga in Bahlika (Bactria), while others identify Asitanjana with Pokkharavati (Sanskrit Pushkalavat) and locate it to the north of river Kabul and to the south of Hindukush mountain range in the Gandhara-Kamboja area."....http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsabhoga#cite_ref-21

"Theragatha Commentary (Vol i.48) informs that the birthplace or residence of Tapassu and Bhalluka (or Bhaliya) was Pokkharavati in Ukkala. The sons of the caravan leader (Satthavaha) started journey from Pokkharavati and their destination was Rajagaha (Rajagriha), and according to the Jataka, they on their way to Majjhimadesa (middle India), where they had met and offered food to the Buddha and become his first lay devotees"......Bhalluka, Bhaliya in: Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, 2003, pp 330, 991, G. P. Malalasekera.

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….August 2014

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