Monday, October 21, 2013

Sambhala in the Kalki Purana (7th C. AD)


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"The Kalki Purana (Sanskrit: कल्कि पुराण Kalki purāṇa) is a prophetic work in Sanskrit that details the life and times of Kalki, the tenth and final of the Dashavatara (the ten Avatars) of the Hindu deity Lord Vishnu. The narrative is set in the distant 4,320th century, near the end of the Kali Yuga or Dark Age, as revealed by the storyteller Suta……As a prophetic work, the Kalki Purana writes details about events believed by Hindus to occur in the future. The work is essentially a derivation of passages collected from various Puranas describing the same subject. The work primarily describes the onset and exponential increase of evil and sin on the earth during the Kali Yuga, and the life of Kalki, who is said to bring an end to the darkness of the Kali Yuga, destroying evil and sin, and beginning a new yuga (age) of sinlessness and peace known as the Satya Yuga."….

"According to Purana, Kalki is believed to arrive on white horse with a sword in hand, representing the end of the world....I have never seen any temple, other this temple in my city that actually has an idol of Kalki on white horse."...

Kalki…..In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; meaning 'Eternity,' 'White Horse,' or 'Destroyer of Filth') is the final incarnation of Vishnu in the current Mahayuga, foretold to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, the current epoch. Religious texts called the Puranas foretell that Kalki will be atop a white horse with a drawn blazing sword. He is the harbinger of end time in Hindu eschatology, after which he will usher in Satya Yuga…..The name Kalki is a metaphor for eternity or time. Its origins may lie in the Sanskrit word kalka which means foulness or filth. Hence, the name translates to the 'destroyer of foulness,' 'destroyer of darkness," or 'destroyer of ignorance.' Another etymology from Sanskrit is 'white horse.'......In Buddhist Kalachakra tradition, 25 rulers of the Shambhala Kingdom held the title of Kalki, Kulika or Kalki-king. During Vaishakha, the first fortnight in Shukla Paksha is dedicated to fifteen deities, with each day for a different god. In this tradition, the twelfth day is Vaishakha Dwadashi and is dedicated to Madhava, another name for Kalki."….

Madhava….a name of Shiva, another name for Kalki.

"Dashavatara (Daśāvatāra) refers to the ten avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu God of universal preservation. Etymologically, Dashavatara (Sanskrit: अवतार, derives from daśa, meaning 'ten' and avatāra, meaning 'descent'). God Vishnu incarnates on Earth from time to time to eradicate evil forces, to restore the dharma and to liberate the worthy ones or devotees from the cycle of births and deaths."…..

"The Twenty-Five Kalki (Tib. Rigden)……The most recent 25 of the 32 Kings of Shambhala are known as Kalki kings (Tib. Rigden, wylie: rigs ldan). Kalki means "Holder of the Castes." The Kalki King is said to reside on a "lion throne" in Kalapa, the capital city of the Kingdom. They are holders of the Kalachakra (Wheel of Time) teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni, passed down from the original seven Dharmarajas of Shambhala……The Kalki have often been erroneously termed "Kulika" by Tibetan Buddhist scholars unfamiliar with the original Sanskrit texts, as Buddhist scholar John R. Newman explains: .. . so far no one seems to have examined the Sanskrit Kalachakra texts. The Buddhist myth of the Kalkis of Shambhala derives from the Hindu Kalki of Shambhala myths contained in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The Vimalaprabha even refers to the Kalkipuranam, probably the latest of the upapuranas. This relationship has been obscured by western scholars who have reconstructed the Tibetan translation term rigs ldan as "Kulika." Although Tibetan rigs ldan is used to translate the Sankrit kulika in other contexts, here it always represents Sanskrit kalkin (possessive of kalkah; I have used the nomininative kalki)."……

Koka and Vikoka…"According to the Kalki Purana, the twin brothers Koka and Vikoka serve as generals under the demon Kali, overlord of Kali Yuga. In their battle against Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of Lord Vishnu, the brothers display their mastery over the dark arts by raising themselves from the dead faster than Kalki can kill them….Lord Brahma eventually appears to Kalki during the battle and reveals to him that the twin devils had received from him a boon of "Immortality". No earthly or celestial weapon can kill them if they are allowed to hold onto one another…..The names and deeds of these demon brothers are comparable to Gog and Magog in the Bible and Ya'jooj Wa Ma'jooj (يأجوج و مأجوج) of Muslim tradition as they are mentioned in the Qur'an."…

Satya Yuga…."After the defeat and destruction of evil on earth, the Satya Yuga (Golden Age) begins. Kalki will divide the earth into earthly kingdoms among his generals, then perform the Ashwamedha and Rajasuya sacrifices for the Devas. Sumati and Vishnuyasha, his parents, will then travel to the holy place of Badrikashram, where they will live until their death. Having finished his mission of restoring peace, Kalki will appear as Vishnu in his four-armed form, and return to Vaikuntha ……After the siring of Kalki's other sons Meghamaal and Balahaka, Kalki will reign on earth for 1,000 years as the king of Shambhala."….

"A few weeks after Shri Maha-kailasa-nilaya Nirmala Devi had taken Kash to visit Shri Shiva meditating on Mount Kailash -

"Among the upa-puranas or sub Puranas, the Kalki Purana is most sacred and widely respected. At the end of Kali -yuga, the Supreme Lord, Hari, will incarnate as Lord Kalki and kill all the mlecchas, yavanas, atheists, and Buddhists of the world that defy the Vedic authority. The pastimes of Lord Kalki are the subject matter of this literature, which is presented in story form. Exalted personalities can see everything, past, present and future. For this reason, there is no fault in narrating these future events as if they had already occurred. The Kalki Purana consists of thirty-five chapters."…..

Some Chapters of the Kalki Purana…..
13…..Visvakarma Reconstructs the village of Sambhala…. The Arrival of Lord Kalki…..
14…..Lord Kalki Conquers the Buddhists Who Opposed Him…..
15…..Lord Kalki Is Attacked BY The Mleccha Women Instruction by the Weapons Personified…..
16…..The Killing of the Raksasi, Kuthodari…..
17…..The Descendents of the Surya Dynasty Lord Ramacandra's Pastimes…..

"Kalki Puranas… in detail with the descent of the tenth incarnation, his life on earth, the various battles fought by him, his marriage and his final return to the Vaishnava paradise (vaikunth) via the Himalayas…. Nothing can be said for certain about its date of composition. The text may not be very old, but since it describes the triumph of the Brahmanical religion over Buddhism and Jainism viewed as heresies one can say at least that it reflects a period between the seventh and the twelveth centuries when these religious traditions were on the decline….as told in the Kalki Purana can be summed up as follows. The future avatar of Vishnu, said to be the son of a Brahmin named Visnuvyasa, has received from the god Shiva a miraculous sword, a parrot and a winged horse of white colour whose name - given as Devadatta (litt. "given by the gods") in the Bhagavata Purana (Stutley, Ibid.) - is not indicated in this text. His fiercest enemy for whose destruction he will become incarnated is Kali or Kali Yuga, the personification of the last of the four yugas, symbolizing all its evils. But Kalki will also have to fight against human enemies, mainly represented by Buddhists and Jains. After his victory he will marry two Ksatriya princesses and his mission on earth being accomplished he will retire to the Himalayas where he will spend his days in meditation.…..

".... the figure of Kalki as presented in the Epic and Puranic literature. As far as we know, the tenth avatar of Vishnu has not inspired any Hindu messianic movement of the revolutionary type nor does he seem to have played any significant role in the Medieval devotional movements (bhakti) centered mostly on Krishna or Rama, the most popular incarnations. If references to Kalki are found in the Epics as well as in a few Puranas such as the Bhagavata and the Visnu Puranas (Stutley, 1985: 138) the two major texts are undoubtedly the Bhavisya and Kalki Puranas. For this study the latter is certainly the more relevant as it deals in detail with the descent of the tenth incarnation, his life on earth, the various battles fought by him, his marriage and his final return to the Vaishnava paradise (vaikunth) via the Himalayas. The Bhavisya Purana, instead, describes future events preceding the coming of Kalki of whom comparatively little is said.".....( I have based my study on Hohensberger's analysis of the Bhavi~ya Purana, on Bhatt and Remy's French translation of the Kalki Purana as well as on its Hindi version)....

" the list of the eighteen great Puranas, the Kalki Purana is considered a secondary Purana (upapurana). It is also referred to as anubhagavata, being sometimes regarded as a sequel to the Bhagavata Purana belonging to the Vaishnava sectarian tradition (Norman, 1908). Nothing can be said for certain about its date of composition. The text may not be very old, but since it describes the triumph of the Brahmanical religion over Buddhism and Jainism viewed as heresies one can say at least that it reflects a period between the seventh and the twelveth centuries when these religious traditions were on the decline."....

"Lord Kalki will appear in the home of the most eminent Brahmana of Shambhala village, the great soul Vishnuyasha." (Srimad-Bhagavatam (12.2.18).... in the Padma Purana (6.242.8-12) the prediction that Lord Kalki will be born in the town of Shambala near the end of Kali-yuga from a Brahmana who is actually an incarnation of Svayambhuva Manu. It is further described that Svayambhuva performed austerities at Naimisa on the bank of the Gomati River......Kalki: The Next Avatar of God and the End of Stephen Knapp

"The Vishnu Purana (Book Four, Chapter 24) also explains that, "When the practices taught in the Vedas and institutes of law have nearly ceased, and the close of the Kali age shall be nigh, a portion of that divine being who exists of His own spiritual nature, and who is the beginning and end, and who comprehends all things, shall descend upon earth. He will be born in the family of Vishnuyasha, an eminent Brahmana of Shambhala village, as Kalki, endowed with eight superhuman faculties."....

".... in the Linga Purana, the Brahmanda Purana, and the Vayu Purana. In these texts we find descriptions of Lord Kalki as He will appear in the future and also as how He appeared in previous incarnations as Pramiti in the time period known as the Svayambhuva Manvantara. These texts tell us that as Kali-yuga comes to a close, and after the death of Bhrigu (or in order to slay the Bhrigus), Kalki (Pramiti) takes birth in the Lunar dynasty of Manu. He will wander over the planet without being seen by any living being. Then he will start His campaign in His thirty-second year and roam the earth for twenty years. He will take with Him a big army of horses, chariots, and elephants, surrounded by hundreds and thousands of spiritually purified Brahmanas armed with weapons. [Being Brahmanas, these weapons may be brahminical weapons that are activated by mantras, such as the powerful brahmastra rather than base weapons of combat such as knives, swords, and spears, or even guns and ordinary explosives.] Though they may try to do battle with Him, He will kill all of the heretics [and false prophets] and wicked, mleccha kings.....In a previous incarnation He killed the Udicyas (Northerners), Madhya Deshyas (residents of the middle lands), Purvatiyas (mountain dwellers), Pracyas (Easterners), Praticyas (Westerners), Dakshinatyas (of Southern India), the Simhalas (Sri Lankans), Pahlavas (the fair-skinned nomadic tribes of the Caucasus mountains), Yadavas (in the area of Greece), Tusharas (people of the area of Mandhata, India, or present day Tukharistan), Cinas (Chinese), Shulikas, Khashas, and different tribes of the Kiratas (aboriginal tribes living in north-eastern India and Nepal) and Vrishalas."....

"...After Lord Kalki had removed all of the nefarious and wicked kings, rulers, and people, and the atheist religions had also been abolished for the real spiritual process of Sanatana-dharma, Lord Kalki returned from His wanderings over the planet to remain in the village of Shambhala. The Kalki Purana (32.2-5) explains, "Lord Kalki continued to reside in the village of Shambhala, along with His brothers, sons, other relatives and associates, for one thousand years. The entire village of Shambhala, which was as good as the heavenly planets, appeared very beautiful with its assembly houses, gates, raised platforms, and flags flapping in the breeze that has been placed here and there. Anyone who gave up his material body in Shambhala was freed from all sinful reactions and awarded shelter at the lotus feet of Lord Kalki. Thus, the village of Shambhala, which was profusely decorated with blooming flowers, pious trees, forests and gardens, became a holy place that granted liberation from material existence."
The Kalki Purana (28.28-30) also describes how Lord Kalki made arrangements for the management of the territory for peaceful existence. "Thereafter, the unlimitedly powerful Lord Kalki continued to reside at Shambhala, and He gave [the lands of] Kankanadesha and Kalapadesha to King Vishakhayupa to rule. Later on, Lord Kalki ordered His son, Kritavarma, to rule numerous other kingdoms, such as Chola, Varvara, and Karva, which were under the jurisdiction of Dvaraka. Lord Kalki respectfully offered heaps of jewels and other kinds of wealth to His father, and, indeed, He satisfied all the citizens of Shambhala. He then continued to happily reside there as a householder, along with His wives, Ramaa and Padmavati. It was at this time that Satya-yuga recommenced."
The Kalki Purana (30.2-5) further relates the auspicious conditions that were found while Lord Kalki ruled the planet. "With Lord Kalki sitting upon the royal throne, the Vedas, the religious principles, Satya-yuga personified, the demigods, and indeed all other moving and non-moving living entities became greatly satisfied. In the previous yuga, the Brahmanas had worshiped the demigods, and to bewilder the masses of people, they had displayed some minuscule mystic powers. During the reign of Lord Kalki, all such cheating practices were stopped so that no atheists or hypocrites could be seen within His kingdom. Lord Kalki thus happily resided in the city of Shambhala.".....


October 2013


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