Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Word Origins…..-i-stan….-asan….-isan….-ezm...-i-ana....-asam

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Land of, land from which....Khorasan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,Tajikistan, Khwarezm, Khorasam, Harezm, Horezm, Od-iana

Stan…..Persian ستان (stān) and Sanskrit स्थान (sthā́na), both deriving from common Indo-Iranian verbal stem √sthā (“to stand, stay”), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (“to stand”), whence also English verbs stay and stand.

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……√sthā…..तिष्ठति…From Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-. Cognates include Latin stō, Ancient Greek ἵστημι (hístēmi), Old English standan (English stand)….

"The name Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure" in Urdu and Persian. It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never,using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghania Province), Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan". The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name."…..http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan

"Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The word Tajik was used by medieval Turks to refer to Iranian-speaking peoples. From the 11th century, the term referred to East Iranian people, but by the 15th century came to be applied to Persian speakers. In medieval Persian literature, Tajik appears as a synonym of "Persian". As a self-designation, the term Tajik (Tajik: Тоҷик), has become acceptable only during the last decades of the 20th century, particularly as a result of Soviet administration in Central Asia. The term does not denote an ethnic group in the narrow sense, but remains a general designation of a variety of Persian-speaking peoples in Central Asia…..Tajikistan was frequently spelled as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English, transliterated from the Russian. (In Russian the phoneme /d͡ʒ/ in Таджикистан is spelled дж, that is, dzh or dj.) Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. "Tajikistan" is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts."….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajikistan

"Khorasan….The name "Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises" the same etymology also having been suggested for Khwarezm. The Persian word Khāvar-zamīn (Persian: خاور زمین‎), meaning "the eastern land", has also been used as an equivalent term…….is is also written as Khurasan (Persian: خراسان بزرگ or خراسان کهن‎), …. a historical regionlying in the northeast of Persia (Iran) that has been mentioned in various sources in the past. "In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of Central Asia and Afghanistan; early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of western Persia, sc. Djibal or what was subsequently termed 'Irak 'Adjami, as being included in a vast and ill-defined region of Khurasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sind." Before Islamization of the region, the inhabitants of Khorasan had mostly practiced Zoroastrianism, but there were also followers of Buddhism and other religions."….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Khorasan

"Khwarezm /kwəˈrɛzəm/ or Chorasmia /kəˈræzmiə/(Persian:خوارزم) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, which borders to the north the (former) Aral Sea, to the east the Kyzylkum desert, to the south the Karakum desert and to the west the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the (indigenous) Khwarezmian civilization and a series of kingdoms, whose capitals were (among others) Kath, Gurganj (the modern Köneürgenç) and, from the 16th century on, Khiva. Today Khwarezm belongs partly to Uzbekistan, partly to Kazakhstan and partly to Turkmenistan."….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarezm

…..Khwarezm etymology….."Khwarezm has been known also as Chorasmia, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Harezm, Horezm, and Chorezm…..In Avestan the name is Xvairizem, in Old Persian Huwarazmish, in Modern Persian خوارزم (Khwārazm), in Arabic خوارزم Khwārizm, in Old Chinese *qʰaljɯʔmriɡ(呼似密), modern Chinese Huālázǐmó (花剌子模), in Kazakh Хорезм, in Uzbek Xorazm, in Turkmen Horezm, in Turkish Harezm, in Greek Χορασμία and Χορασίμα, by Herodotus…..The Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his Muʿǧam al-buldan wrote that the name was a compound (in Persian) of khwar (خوار), and razm (رزم), referring to the abundance of cooked fish as a main diet of the peoples of this area….C.E. Bosworth however, believes the Persian name to be made up of (خور) meaning "the sun" and (زم) meaning "Earth", designating "the land from which the sun rises", although the same etymology is also given for Khurasan. Another view is that the Iranian compound stands for "lowland" from kh(w)ar "low" and zam "earth, land.". Khwarezm is indeed the lowest region in Central Asia (except for the Caspian Sea to the far west), located on the delta of the Amu Darya on the southern shores of the Aral Sea. Various forms of khwar/khar/khor/hor are commonly used also in the Persian Gulf to stand for tidal flats, marshland, or tidal bays (e.g., Khor Musa, Khor Abdallah, Hor al-Azim, Hor al-Himar, etc.)….The name also appears in Achaemenid inscriptions as Huvarazmish, which is declared to be part of the Persian Empire….Some of the early scholars believed Khwarezm to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as Airyanem Vaejah ("Ariyaneh Waeje"; later Middle Persian Iran vij). These sources claim that Old Urgench, which was the capital of ancient Khwarezm for many years, was actually Ourva, the eighth land of Ahura Mazda mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad. However, Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Airyanem Vaejah was located in what is now Afghanistan, the northern areas of which were a part of ancient Khwarezm and Greater Khorasan. Others, however, disagree. University of Hawaii historian Elton L. Daniel believes Khwarezm to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan people, and Dehkhoda calls Khwarezm "مهد قوم آریا" ("the cradle of the Aryan tribe")."….http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarezm

Turkmenistan…..Turkish Türkmen ("Turk-like; Turkmen") + Persian ستان (stān, "-stan")…Persian ستان (stān) and Sanskrit स्थान (sthā́na), both deriving from common Indo-Iranian verbal stem √sthā (“to stand, stay”), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (“to stand”), whence also English verbs stay and stand.

Map: http://sogdcoins.narod.ru/english/sogdiana/history.html

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico….December 2013

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